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Thursday, 2 February 2012

India is made Free Hunting Ground for International Arms dealers as the Zionist Brahaminical Hegemony Militarises the STATE to accomplish the agenda of Mass Destruction and Ethnic cleansing of the Excluded Mulnivasi Bahujan!



India is made Free Hunting Ground for International Arms dealers as the Zionist Brahaminical Hegemony Militarises the STATE to accomplish the agenda of Mass Destruction and Ethnic cleansing of the Excluded Mulnivasi Bahujan!


Indian jet competition shows emerging markets importance In Free Market Global Order!No country immune to euro crisis, says Christine Lagarde!

Indian Holocaust My Father`s Life and

Time - SEVEN HUNDRED NINETY SEVEN

Palash Biswas

http://indianholocaustmyfatherslifeandtime.blogspot.com/

http://basantipurtimes.blogspot.com/


The Rafale fighter aircraft built by France's Dassault Aviation has emerged the lowest bidder in the contest to sell the Indian Air Force (IAF) 126 medium multi-role combat aircraft. According to sources in the defence ministry, the Rafale has emerged marginally cheaper than its rival fighter, the Typhoon, fielded by a four-nation consortium, Eurofighter.

In reaching this conclusion, the IAF has calculated the Rafale would be cheaper than the Typhoon to buy, manufacture and fly over its entire four-decade service life. No prices have been made available, but MoD sources say the Rafale would cost some Rs 25 crore less than the Typhoon apiece.

The ministry did not respond to phone calls, an email and an SMS request for official confirmation.
However, Dassault sources confirm the ministry has informed the company that it has emerged the lowest bidder. Dassault remains unwilling to share details of its winning bid. A ministry committee, the Contract Negotiation Committee or CNC, will now engage with Dassault to hammer down the price before signing a contract.

The ministry had initially budgeted Rs 42,000 crore as the total cost of the 126-fighter contract. Ministry sources say India will, in fact, pay substantially more than that. The final deal size is subject to negotiations, and could go up to Rs 75,000 crore.

Dassault will be required to supply 18 "made-in-France" Rafales in three-four years. After that, manufacturing will progressively shift to Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd, Bangalore, which will build a new manufacturing line for the Eurofighter.
Hunger Facts
1.
Hunger remains the No.1 cause of death in the world. Aids, Cancer etc. follow.
2.
There are 820 million chronically hungry people in the world.
3.
1/3rd of the worldÂ's hungry live in India.
4.
836 million Indians survive on less than Rs. 20 (less than half-a-dollar) a day.
5.
Over 20 crore Indians will sleep hungry tonight.
6.
10 million people die every year of chronic hunger and hunger-related diseases. Only eight percent are the victims of hunger caused by high-profile earthquakes, floods, droughts and wars.
7.
India has 212 million undernourished people – only marginally below the 215 million estimated for 1990–92.
8.
99% of the 1000 Adivasi households from 40 villages in the two states, who comprised the total sample, experienced chronic hunger (unable to get two square meals, or at least one square meal and one poor/partial meal, on even one day in the week prior to the survey). Almost as many (24.1 per cent) had lived in conditions of semi-starvation during the previous month.
9.
Over 7000 Indians die of hunger every day.
10.
Over 25 lakh Indians die of hunger every year.
11.
Despite substantial improvement in health since independence and a growth rate of 8 percent in recent years, under-nutrition remains a silent emergency in India, with almost 50 percent of Indian children underweight and more than 70 percent of the women and children with serious nutritional deficiencies as anemia.
12.
The 1998 – 99 Indian survey shows 57 percent of the children aged 0 – 3 years to be either severely or moderately stunted and/or underweight.
13.
During 2006 – 2007, malnutrition contributed to seven million Indian children dying, nearly two million before the age of one.
14.
30% of newborn are of low birth weight, 56% of married women are anaemic and 79% of children age 6-35 months are anaemic.
15.
The number of hungry people in India is always more than the number of people below official poverty line (while around 37% of rural households were below the poverty line in 1993-94, 80% of households suffered under nutrition).
Sources :
UN World Food Programme
UN World Health Organization: Global Database on Child Growth and Malnutrition, 2006
UN Food and Agriculture Organization: SOFI 2006 Report
National Commission for Enterprises in the Unorganized Sector (India)
National Family Health Survey 2005 – 06 (NFHS-3) (India)
Centre for Environment and Food Security (India)
Rural 21 (India)

  1. ndia tops world hunger chart - Times Of India

    27 Feb 2009 – NEW DELHI: India is failing its rural poor with 230 million people being undernourished — the highest for any country in the world. Malnutrition ...
  2. Hunger Stats | WFP | United Nations World Food Programme ...

    www.wfp.org/hunger/stats
    World Food Programme Fighting Hunger Worldwide ... TOP 4 HUNGER STATS ... 65 percent of the world's hungry live in only seven countries: India, China, the ...
  3. Poverty line or starvation line?

    18 Dec 2009 – mortality per day due to starvation? Can you provide the statistics ofstarvation and mortality per day due to starvation in India. Posted By: Shri ...
  4. Hunger and Poverty in India | Food Crisis 2010

    www.foodcrisis2010.com/hunger-and-poverty-in-india
    5 May 2011 – hunger in india 2011 (29); starvation in india statistics (16); poverty in india statistics (14); hunger statistics in India 2011 (12); poverty in india ...
  5. Famine in India - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Famine_in_India
    The famine in the Deccan and Gujarat, was another famine in India's history. .....Famine fatality statistics were unreliable, and a range of between 2–4 million ...
  6. Hunger Facts | The Hunger Site for Facts ... - Bhookh.com - India's...

    www.bhookh.com/hunger_facts.php
    Only eight percent are the victims of hunger caused by high-profile earthquakes, floods, droughts and wars. 7. India has 212 million undernourished people – ...
  7. Can Anyone Gimme The Links For The Starvation Statistics ...

    India Question: Can Anyone Gimme The Links For The Starvation StatisticsHappening In India? According to the Global Hunger Index, India has a ranking of 66...
  8. The world hunger problem: Facts, figures and statistics

    The world hunger problem: Facts, figures and statistics. In the Asian, African ... TheIndian subcontinent has nearly half the world's hungry people. Africa and the ...
  9. BBC - Soutik Biswas's India: How Churchill 'starvedIndia

    28 Oct 2010 – The British War Cabinet is holding meetings on a famine sweeping its troubled colony, India. Millions of natives mainly in eastern Bengal, are ..

Wed, 01 Feb 2012 11:33:56 GMT
India's military growth: Pics

New acquisitions reflects India's growing defence needs, South Asia's worsening geopolitical situation





SHOW THUMBNAILS1 of 13
In view of India's decision to induct the French aircraft Dassault Rafale into the IAF, we have a look at other military equipment the country is planning to acquire/develop.

India is jointly developing a stealth fighter, based on the Sukhoi T-50 platform, with Russia.

In this photo: Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin walks near a new Russian fighter jet Sukhoi T-50, after its flight in Zhukovksy, outside Moscow on June 17, 2010. AFP

Dassault Rafale: French wings for Indian Air Force

$10.4 bn, 126 fighter jets: It's the IAF's biggest ever deal





SHOW THUMBNAILS1 of 24
In a massive deal worth $10.4 billion, India has chosen French aviation firm Rafale, over European consortium Eurofighter, to provide 126 fighter jets over 10 years to the Indian Air Force.


  1. Images for Rafale

  2. - Report images
  3. Omnirole by design

France welcomes fighter jet deal


*
France on Tuesday (January 31) hailed India's selection of French firm Dassault as the preferred bidder for a multi-billion-dollar fighter jet contract as a vote of confidence in French industry. The selection of Dassault's Rafale multi-role fighter "goes far beyond the company that makes them, far beyond aerospace -- it is a vote of confidence in the entire French economy," President Nicolas Sarkozy said.



India is made Free Hunting Ground for International arms dealer as the Zionist Brahaminical Hegemony Militarises the STATE to accomplish the agenda of Mass Destruction and Ethnic cleansing of the Excluded Mulnivasi Bahujan!

India is buying 126 French-made combat aircraft in a massive $11 billion deal that will increase the might of the world's fourth largest air force with the first exported Rafale jets, officials said Tuesday.

*
Text: AFP

France's Rafale multi-role jet, which has sought foreign buyers for a over a decade, is a versatile plane that has flown bombing missions in Libya and Afghanistan.

India on Tuesday selected Rafale's manufacturer Dassault Aviation over the Eurofighter consortium as the preferred bidder for 126 fighter jets in a major contract estimated to be worth $12 billion.


First, the Americans, Russians and Swedes were ejected out of the hotly-contested race. And now, the Europeans too have been shot down in the dogfight, leaving only the French flying high in the Indian skies.

After an exhaustive technical and commercial evaluation spread over five long years, India on Tuesday selected French jet Rafale over theEurofighter Typhoon for the gigantic almost $20 billion MMRCA ( medium multi-role combat aircraft) programme to supply 126 fighters to IAF - the largest such "open-tender" military aviation deal in the world.

It will take another four to five months for the contract to be inked after the final round of commercial negotiations between the defence ministry and French aviation major Dassault, and the requisite final nod from the Cabinet Committee on Security.

Indian jet competition shows emerging markets importance In Free Market Global Order!

Fitch downgraded the sovereign credit ratings of Belgium, Cyprus, Italy, Slovenia and Spain on Friday, indicating there was a 1-in-2 chance of further cuts in the next two years.

International Monetary Fund Managing Director Christine Lagarde said no economy is "immune" from the European sovereign debt crisis. "It's a crisis that could have spillover effects around the world," she said on Saturday at the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland.

David Cameron, UK prime minister, has vowed to "encourage" India to reconsider its decision to buy France's Dassault jet fighter instead of Eurofighter's Typhoon, in which BAE Systems, the UK defence contractor, has a major stake.

On the other hand,The German government regrets India's decision to pick France's Dassault Aviation over Eurofighter as the preferred bidder for a war plane contract, a spokesman said on Wednesday, adding, however, that no deal had yet been signed.

"The German government notes the preliminary decision made by the Indian government," German government spokesman Steffen Seibert said at a regular news conference.

"The German government regrets that the offer made by the Eurofighter consortium has, for now, not been accepted," he added.

Asked why he used the term "for now", he said experience showed that pursuing exclusive talks was no guarantee of a sale and contracts sometimes ended up going to a different bidder.
Rafale, made by Dassault, emerged on Tuesday as preferred bidder in the contest to supply India with 126 warplanes in what will be a $15 billion deal.

Its competitor, the Eurofighter Typhoon, is developed by a consortium comprising the German and Spanish branches of EADS , Britain's BAE Systems and Italy's Finmeccanica.


British Prime Minister David Cameron said on Wednesday that India's decision to choose France's Dassault Aviationover Eurofighter as preferred bidder for a $15 billion war plane contract was disappointing and he would urge India to reconsider. On the other hand,France is confident that it can sign and seal a firm USD 12 billion deal to supply India with 126 Rafale fighter jets "within six to nine months", government spokeswoman Valerie Pecresse said today. The Rafale, a modern multi-role jet built by Dassault Aviation, has been selected by India as its preferred next generation interceptor, but details of the immense contract remain to be ironed out.

"It needs to be finalised, but the French offer is the most competitive and that has been recognised by our partners," Pecresse said, after President Nicolas Sarkozy hailed the deal at a cabinet meeting. India announced yesterday it had selected the French firm Dassault over the Eurofighter consortium for "exclusive negotiations" as the preferred bidder in a contract estimated to be worth USD 12 billion. If concluded, the contract would mark the first time the jet had found an export partner, despite being in service with the French military since 1998 and having proved itself in several conflicts.


"Of course I will do everything I can, as I have already, to encourage the Indians to look at Typhoon (Eurofighter) because I think it is such a good aircraft," Cameron told parliament.

"The decision is obviously disappointing but it is about who the Indians have assessed as making the lowest bid and therefore asked to enter into further negotiations. They have not yet awarded the contract," he added.

He said he did not expect any job losses in Britain as a result of the decision and said "it doesn't rule out Typhoon for India."

"We must go on making the case. This (Eurofighter) is a superb aircraft with far better capabilities than Rafale and we will try and encourage the Indians to take that view," he added.

Rafale, made by Dassault, emerged on Tuesday as preferred bidder in the contest to supply India with 126 warplanes.

While exclusive talks are not a guarantee of sale, they deal a probable knockout blow to Rafale's chief rival in India, the Eurofighter Typhoon, a fighter plane developed by a consortium of four European aviation companies --the German and Spanish branches of EADS, Britain's BAE Systems and Italy's Finmeccanica.

Cameron's spokesman said Britain would look very carefully at why India took the decision to make Dassault the preferred bidder. "We will want to learn from that," he told reporters.

Talks between France and India over the fighter jet sale should be wrapped up within six to nine months, French government spokeswoman Valerie Pecresse said on Wednesday.

The following statement was released by the rating agency Fitch Ratings:

Fitch Ratings says that the competition to supplyfighter jets to India, where the Indian Ministry of Defence announced on 31 January 2012 that it will enter exclusive negotiations with Dassault to purchase 126 Rafale jets in a deal that may be worth up to $20bn to the manufacturer over the life of the contract, demonstrates the growing importance ofemerging markets to the defence industry in developed markets at a time when their domestic revenue base is under pressure as a result of widespread fiscal constraints.

"The Indian competition is one of the biggest defence deals in recent years, but it is likely to be only one of many as far as defence procurement by emerging market countries in the coming two years or so is concerned," says Tom Chruszcz, Director in Fitch's Industrials team.

"In the fighter jet segment alone, up to a further 340 fighters could be ordered by emerging markets before the end of 2014 in what may prove to be boon for western defence companies suffering from weaker local demand."

Fitch notes that of the new fighter jet orders which are expected to be announced in the coming two years, the majority of these are likely to be in emerging markets. The most significant include Brazil, South Korea, the UAE, Qatar and Oman, which together could order up to 300 aircraft. Other, smaller, orders are also expected from Malaysia, Bangladesh and Bulgaria, among others.

Conversely, few large orders in the short term are expected from developed countries, most of which are focusing on reducing their defence expenditure as part of wider efforts to rein in budget deficits.

Fitch notes that the robust outlook for emerging market demand is not limited to fighter jets, but evident across the wider defence sector also, with big orders expected in the defence electronics segment, among others, in the short term.

Nevertheless, the fighter jet segment demonstrates most acutely the recent shift in demand from traditional western markets to emerging countries, demand which is driven as much by the increased financial capacity of certain emerging countries as by modernisation requirements.

The strong growth in emerging market demand for defence equipment is a welcome respite to western military manufacturers who are increasingly seeing their revenue under pressure from cuts to defence spending in their indigenous markets. For example, in 2011, Fitch estimates that defence spending in Western Europe declined by approximately 4% - 5% from 2010 levels and may likely decline further in 2012.

Given that it is unlikely that defence spending will see a reversal of recent trends, Fitch believes that in the medium term, the reliance on emerging markets for the defence sector will continue to grow.

Nevertheless, for numerous reasons including political factors, pricing policies, product suitability as well as contractors existing level of involvement in a certain country, it remains uncertain which western defence manufacturers stand to benefit the most from this growth.

Under the MMRCA project, the first 18 jets will come in "fly-away condition" from France from mid-2015 onwards, while the rest 108 fighters will later be manufactured in India over six years after a transfer of technology (ToT) to Hindustan Aeronautics (HAL).

Sources said MoD on Tuesday declared Rafale to be cheaper (or lowest bidder, L-1) than Typhoon after extensive mathematical calculations and data verification of the unit cost of the two jets, lifecycle costs of operating them over a 40-year period, with 6,000 hours of flying, as well as cost of the ToT.

India's decision will cause tremendous heartburn among the four countries backing the Typhoon - the UK, Germany, Spain and Italy. The US, for instance, is still sore about last year's ejection of its F/A-18 `Super Hornet' and F-16 `Super Viper' jets from the MMRCA race after grueling field trials by IAF test pilots found only Rafale and Typhoon "compliant" on all the 643-660 technical parameters laid down to meet specific operational requirements of India.

Realizing this "sensitivity", the external affairs ministry on Tuesday "briefed" the missions of the four losing European countries in New Delhi, while MoD explained the "determination of L-1" to aviation companies Dassault and European EADS, said sources.

Defence minister A K Antony had himself made it clear that "no external factor or geo-political consideration" would play a role in the MMRCA selection process, which would solely depend on technical and commercial factors, in what will be the single biggest arms deal to be inked by UPA-II before the 2014 elections.

France has reasons to be euphoric, with twin-engine Rafale still to find favour with any other international customer. French Air Force chief General Jean-Paul Palomeros, on a recent visit to India, had told TOI the multi-role Rafale had proved its mettle in Afghanistan and Libya, while also stressing the fighter was "nuclear-capable".

French President Nicolas Sarkozy on Tuesday said the MMRCA deal would "include significant ToT guaranteed by the French government".

France, the only major Western country not to impose sanctions on India after the 1998 Pokhran-II nuclear tests, has three major ongoing defence projects with India - the Rs 23,562-crore for six Scorpene submarines, the Rs 10,947-crore upgrade for 51 Mirage-2000s and the Rs 6,600-crore acquisition of 490 MICA missile systems.

The MMRCA project will dwarf them all. As earlier reported by TOI, this "mother" of all defence deals could well become the "granny" since India will in all probability go in for another 63 fighters after the first 126 jets.

When the MMRCA selection process was initiated by MoD in mid-2007, the overall project cost was pegged at Rs 42,000 crore or $10.4 billion for 126 fighters. Since then, with inflation also being factored in, revised estimates indicate the figure will touch $20 billion, if not exceed it. If India goes in for 189 jets, it will further head north.

IAF is keen the deliveries of the 126 fighters begin from mid-2015 onwards to stem its fast-eroding combat edge. Plans are in place to base the first MMRCA squadrons in the western sector against Pakistan, first Ambala and then Jodhpur, followed by Hashimara in the eastern sector against China, say sources.

"The first MMRCA built in HAL should roll out in 2017-18. Thereafter, HAL will deliver six jets per year, which will go up to 20 per year later. HAL will achieve 85% technology absorption by the end," said a source.

Both MoD and IAF are confident there are "enough safeguards'' built into the project, which includes "performance-based logistics'', to ensure India "gets the best machine, spares and product support".

The 126 new jets will add to the ongoing progressive induction of 272 Sukhoi-30MKIs contracted from Russia for around $12 billion to bolster India's depleting number of fighter squadrons, which are down to just 33 (with 14 to 18 jets in each) from even the "sanctioned strength" of 39.5 squadrons.

India is finalizing details of the stealth Indo-Russian FGFA (fifth-generation fighter aircraft) to be built in the coming decades. IAF hopes to begin inducting the first lot of the 250 to 300 FGFA from 2020 onwards, which rough calculations show will eventually cost India around $35 billion.

French jet firm makes Swiss new offer: report

French aircraft maker Dassault has made a new offer to Switzerland for its Rafale fighter jets after the government decided in November to buy Sweden's Gripen planes instead, a report said Sunday.
Dassault has sent a letter to parliament -- which has yet to approve the November decision -- offering 18 Rafale planes for 2.7 billion Swiss francs (2.24 billion euros, 2.96 billion dollars), reported Le Matin Dimanche, which said it had seen the letter.
In November, Dassault lost out on a bid to replace Switzerland's ageing F5 fighter fleet when the Federal Council opted instead to buy 22 Saab Gripen fighter planes for an estimated 3.1 billion francs.
But parliament still has to approve the decision.
"Yes, I have received this letter," Hans Hess of the parliament's security commission told the newspaper.
Hess gave no further details but said it would be discussed by the upper house group on February 13.
Defence Minister Ueli Maurer meanwhile told the Sonntags Zeitung he was not aware of the offer.
The government considered Rafales, Gripens and Eurofighters produced by the EADS consortium.
In making its decision it argued that Gripen jets met airforce needs without compromising the budgets of other military branches.
Dassault was not immediately available for comment on Sunday.


Dassault Aviation SA (AM), seeking its first export order for Rafale fighters, will begin exclusive negotiations to supply 126 jets to India after being selected as the lowest bidder.
The French company and India's defense ministry will begin talks within 15 days, an Indian government official told reporters in New Delhi yesterday. Negotiations will probably extend beyond the March 31 end of India's fiscal year.
Dassault surged the most in 22 years in Paris trading yesterday as it nears a deal valued at $11 billion. A lack of exports had led French Defense Minister Gerard Longuet to suggest the government could stop funding the Rafale, which has been used by the nation's military for more than a decade.
"It's great news for Dassault, it really firms things up for them," saidYan Derocles, an analyst at Paris-based Oddo Securities. "It would be their first export contract, and a very significant one at that, and it would likely have a booster effect on other negotiations now under way."
India shortlisted the Rafale and Eurofighter Typhoon in April, when it rejected bids from U.S. manufacturers Lockheed Martin Corp. (LMT)and Boeing Co. (BA), as well as Saab AB (SAABB) and OAO United Aircraft Corp. The country is buying the fighters to replace an aging fleet of Russian MiG-21s and Dassault Mirage 2000s.
"The Rafale was selected thanks to its cost effectiveness over the lifetime of the plane," French President Nicolas Sarkozy said in an e-mailed statement. "The announcement comes after a very high-level, equitable and transparent competition."

Dassault Jumps

Dassault, based in Paris, jumped 18 percent to 725 euros. A majority of the stock is held by the Dassault family, while European Aeronautic, Defence & Space Co., a co-producer of the competing Typhoon, owns 46 percent. Safran SA (SAF), which supplies the Rafale's engines, rose 3.6 percent.
Indian law requires the government to negotiate a contract with the lowest bidder. The only way it can reconsider the tender is if Dassault says it can't fulfill the contract, said Mrinal Suman, an arms-procurement adviser for the Confederation of India Industry.
Europe and U.S. defense contractors have stepped up their focus on Asia and emerging markets where military spending is rising because of economic growth. India tripled its military budget in a decade to $32 billion in the year ended March 31, 2011 to compete with a near-quadrupling of spending by neighbor China. In December, Japan awarded a contract to Lockheed Martin to supply 42 F-35 fighter jets.
By contrast, governments in Europe and the U.S. are paring defense spending as they tackle deficits. That has, for instance, caused Eurofighter to slow production of the Typhoon as it awaits new orders.

Rising Cost

The Indian contract was valued at 420 billion rupees ($8.5 billion) in a 2007 tender. The cost may have risen to as much as $11 billion, partly because of delays in picking a winner, Suman said. India's state-owned Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd. (HNAL) will probably be the production partner for the planes, according to Craig Caffrey, a London-based analyst at IHS Jane's DS Forecast, which advises defense suppliers.
"Dassault Aviation and its partners reiterate their commitment to meet the operational requirements of the Indian Air Force and underline their pride in contributing to India's defense for over half a century," the French planemaker said in an e-mailed statement.

France Paying

France so far had been left to pay the full production costs for the Rafale after the fighter was rejected by countries including Singapore, South Korea, Morocco and Switzerland. Longuet told LCP television in a December interview that the Rafale was more expensive than U.S. models and that "the production line will be stopped" without exports. He didn't give a timeframe. French Prime Minister Francois Fillon said later the same month that production will continue.
Dassault, which has delivered at least 100 of 180 fighters ordered by France, had lost a contest to Saab's Gripen in Switzerland. It has since sought to get back into the competition with a new offer that includes fewer and modified Rafale jets. The company was also close to winning orders from Brazil and the United Arab Emirates before both governments began fresh negotiations. It remains in these contests.
"We've seen other deals advance to this stage with Rafale only to get broken, like Brazil and U.A.E.," said Richard Aboulafia, vice president at the Teal Group, a Fairfax, Virginia-based consulting company. "I'm not sure I'd take this to the bank until we see a firm contract."
Eurofighter said it was "disappointed" by the choice and respects the decision. The group includes BAE Systems Plc (BA/), EADS (EAD), and Italy's Finmeccanica SpA. (FNC)
Dassault's relations with India date back 60 years. India was the very first export customer for Dassault, ordering 71 Ouragans in June 1953, and India has purchased most Dassault models sold since. India replaced the Ouragans with Dassault's Mystere IV A in 1957, procuring 104 in 1957 and using them in 1961 for air strikes against the Portuguese colony of Daman.


Fitch downgraded the sovereign credit ratings of Belgium, Cyprus, Italy, Slovenia and Spain on Friday, indicating there was a 1-in-2 chance of further cuts in the next two years.

In a statement, the ratings agency said the affected countries were vulnerable in the near-term to monetary and financial shocks.

"Consequently, these sovereigns do not, in Fitch's view, accrue the full benefits of the euro's reserve currency status," it said.

Fitch cut Italy's rating to A-minus from A-plus; Spain to A from AA-minus; Belgium to AA from AA-plus; Slovenia to A from AA-minus and Cyprus to BBB-minus from BBB, leaving the small island nation just one notch above junk status.

Ireland's rating of BBB-plus was affirmed. All of the ratings were given negative outlooks. Fitch said it had weighed up a worsening economic outlook in much of the euro zone against the European Central Bank's December move to flood the banking sector with cheap three-year money and austerity efforts by governments to curb their debts.

"Overall, today's rating actions balance the marked deterioration in the economic outlook with both the substantive policy initiatives at the national level to address macro-financial and fiscal imbalances, and the initial success of the ECB's three-year Long-Term Refinancing Operation in easing near-term sovereign and bank funding pressures," Fitch said.

Two weeks ago, Standard & Poor's downgraded the credit ratings of nine euro zone countries, stripping France and Austria of their coveted triple-A status but not EU paymaster Germany, and pushing struggling Portugal into junk territory.

With nearly half a trillion euros of ECB liquidity coursing through the financial system, some of which has apparently gone into euro zone government bonds, and with hopes of a deal to write down a slab of Greece's mountainous debt, even that sweeping ratings action had little market impact.

The euro briefly pared gains against the dollar after Fitch cut the five euro zone sovereigns but soon jumped to a session high of $1.3208, according to Reuters data, its highest since Dec. 13.

Italy is widely seen as the tipping point for the euro zone. If it slid towards default, the whole currency project would be threatened.
Lagarde said governments should also boost their bailout funds. "It is critical that the euro-zone members actually develop a clear, simple firewall that can limit the contagion," she said.

She also said some countries that use the euro have the flexibility to boost growth to help shore up the ailing eurozone economy, which is widely-expected to sink back into recession. Lagarde said the 17 nations that use the euro should not undertake dramatic spending cuts to reduce debts at the same pace or to the same degree.

"Some countries have to go full-speed ahead to do this fiscal consolidation, but other countries have space and room," said Lagarde. Though conceding that there weren't many of them, Lagarde said it was important that those that have the headroom should explore how they can boost growth.

She carefully avoided naming any countries, but likely had in mind Germany, Europe's largest economy and a major world exporter. She didn't specify how to boost growth either or how one eurozone country could help others grow. In addition, Lagarde said members of the eurozone should continue the drive to tie their economies closer together over the months and years ahead.

Lagarde also repeated her belief that the Washington, D.C.-based fund needs more resources if it is to help restore stability in the global economy. The IMF has said it needs around $500 billion more in financial firepower, a request that has met with mixed response and notably resistance from the US.

Britain's finance minister George Osborne said there was "a case" for boosting the IMF's resources. Osborne said the eurozone had two things to do over the coming weeks to get a handle on its crisis: Greece's debt-reduction talks with private creditors had to be concluded soon; while the creation of a proper "firewall" of measures aimed at stopping the crisis from spreading was "key to unlocking further confidence".

Europe's debt crises are a major concern of the business and political leaders gathered for the annual, invitation-only event at Davos. Meanwhile, ratings agency Fitch has downgraded its sovereign credit ratings of Belgium, Cyprus, Italy, Spain and Slovenia.

Ratings of Italy and Spain, two Eurozone economic heavyweights, were slashed by two notches. The countries now have the ratings of A- and A, respectively.

Well that's gratitude! We give India £1bn in aid, THEY snub the UK and give France a £13bn jet contract

  • Propaganda coup for Nicolas Sarkozy just days after he declared Britain has 'no industry'
  • French firm Dassault Rafale slashes price of fighter jets to ensure deal
  • 'Disappointed' Cameron insists there will be no job losses despite blow

By TIM SHIPMAN and SUE REID
Last updated at 12:59 PM on 1st February 2012
India has snubbed British industry and awarded a £13billion deal to supply fighter jets to France.
The contract was lost despite Government claims that the UK's £1billion aid package to India would help secure the order.
Yesterday's decision also handed a propaganda coup to French President Nicolas Sarkozy, who sneeringly claimed on Monday that Britain 'has no industry'.
Scroll down for video
Vive la France: The Rafale jets will replace India's ageing fleet of Russian MiGs, with the French company entering exclusive talks with the Indians to finalise the deal by March
Rejected: RAF Typhoons fell to second place, despite the belief that controversial aid packages would secure the India contract for Britain
French firm Dassault Rafale was selected as the preferred bidder to supply 126 military jets to the Indian air force.
BAE Systems, which builds the Eurofighter Typhoon jet, was consigned to second place.

More...


International Development Secretary Andrew Mitchell said in December that Britain's controversial foreign aid programme was partly designed to win the bid.
Britain is sending £280million to India for each of the next four years, even though the country has more billionaires than Britain and has its own space programme.
The aid package is 15 times larger than the £18million France sent to India in 2009.
Vive la France: The decision is a propaganda coup for French President Nicolas Sarkozy, who sneeringly claimed on Monday that Britain 'has no industry'
Asked to justify Indian aid last year, Mr Mitchell said: 'It's a very important relationship. The focus is also about seeking to sell Typhoon.'
The decision is also a setback for David Cameron, who visited India in 2010 with six Cabinet ministers and around 60 businessmen to try to establish Britain as the 'partner of choice' for India.
Today during Prime Minister's Questions in the House of Commons, Mr Cameron said he was 'disappointed' by the decision.
He said: 'We don't expect any job losses stemming from this decision and it does not rule out the Typhoon for India.'
He insisted BAE Systems was still in the hunt for the contract, despite losing the first round of bidding.
Yesterday, Indian officials said Dassault emerged in front because the Rafale jet was 'much cheaper unit-wise' than the Eurofighter.
It was reported today that Dassault slashed its price demands to ensure the deal was done.
One Indian defence ministry source said: 'The Indian air force, which is well-equipped with French fighters, is favouring the French.' The Rafale jets will replace India's ageing fleet of Russian MiGs.
The French company will now enter exclusive talks with the Indians to finalise the deal, which is expected to be signed in March. The Typhoon is built by BAE Systems and a consortium of German and Spanish branches of European aerospace giant EADS and Italy's Finmeccanica.
Last night Tory MP Peter Bone questioned the purpose of sending British aid to India at a time when cuts are being made at home. 'It just goes to show that it's a myth that by Britain becoming an aid superpower and doling billions of pounds out to countries like this exerts any influence whatsoever on the decisions made by those governments when purchasing equipment.
'We need to slash the international development money and invest the billions saved to help hard-pressed British families.'
The Unite union last night expressed fears that the loss of the deal could threaten 4,500 jobs at BAE Systems' Samlesbury base in Lancashire, where key components of the Typhoon are made, and Warton Aerodrome near Preston, where the aircraft is assembled.
Government officials and BAE Systems insisted that they were not completely eliminated from the process and could still land the deal if India's talks with Dassault collapse.
A spokesman for UK Trade and Investments, the branch of the Government that promotes trade deals overseas, said: 'This does not rule out Typhoon for India.
'Today's decision is about who the Indians have assessed as making the lowest bid and therefore asked to enter into further negotiations.
'But the Indians have not yet awarded the contract. We continue to believe Eurofighter Typhoon provides the best capability today and into the future.'
A spokesman for BAE Systems added: 'We believe Eurofighter Typhoon offers the best military, industrial and economic solution for India.'
Unite warned that the selection of a French fighter aircraft for the multibillion-pound contract could have serious implications for BAE Systems and the UK aerospace industry.
National officer Ian Waddell said: 'We are seeking confirmation from BAE Systems that Rafale has been selected as their preferred fighter by India.
'The Typhoon is a superb aircraft which supports thousands of highly skilled jobs in the UK, both at BAE Systems and in the supply chain.
'We are concerned about the serious implications this decision may have and want urgent talks with the company about future plans for the workforce.
'There are other export orders to be won and it is critical that the company maintains its commitment to Typhoon despite this setback.'
The CSEU, an umbrella body for manufacturing unions, is meeting the MoD's Procurement Minister, Peter Luff, next week and the unions will raise this issue as a priority.
Unite said it will continue to concentrate its efforts to deal with the 3,000 potential redundancies at BAE Systems at Brough, Samlesbury and Warton which were announced late last year.

WHAT A WASTE: BRITAIN GIVES £1.4BN IN AID TO A COUNTRY WITH £900BN STORED IN SWISS BANKS - YET MANY STILL LIVE IN SQUALOR


India is racing up the league of rich nations. Indeed, its soaring economy will outstrip the UK's by 2022. According to financial advisers Merrill Lynch, India has 153,000 dollar-millionaires — a 20 per cent rise in a year, compared with Britain's own paltry increase of less than 1 per cent.
Indians have squirrelled away more money in Swiss bank accounts (a total of £900 billion since independence from Britain in 1947) than the rest of the world combined.
And when they were invited recently by the Indian Government to exchange for paper money the gold bars and jewellery stashed in their homes (so pumping cash into the national economy), a horde of £160 billion was offered up.
Poor: India is a rich nation and receives billions in aid, yet many still live in poverty
Missing: This school has no desks or chairs because they had never been delivered and are presumed stolen from the factory where they were made
Such is the economic power of India that it now gives out more foreign aid than it receives, and has handed over £3.5 billion to cement relations with impoverished Africa.
Meanwhile, it invests huge sums in ambitious projects: £2 billion will put the first Indian astronauts into space by 2016, and the annual defence budget tops £22 billion, with a third aircraft carrier now under construction in an Indian shipyard.
Perhaps the perfect example of the garish spending of India's newly-rich is the £2 billion, 27-storey skyscraper in Mumbai built by a local industrialist as a home for his wife and three children. It is the most expensive house anywhere in the world.
Despite this enormous wealth, David Cameron has decided to give India £1.4 billion between now and 2015. The sum is almost 1 per cent of Britain's own £159 billion debts.
What's more, it's feared that some of this money is chewed up by corruption and fraud.
Wealthy: India's first unmanned mission to the Moon, Chandrayaan 1 spacecraft, pictured in 2008
An official report has revealed that 90 per cent of government officials have accepted a bribe for favours, from ripping up a speeding fine to rubber-stamping a building deal. Corruption, as the Indian prime minister has confessed, is as much a national sport as cricket.
Officials admit that £70 million of the £388 million given by Britain towards a national flagship education programme called Sarva Shiksha Abbiyan ('education for all'), which promises free classes for every child from the age of six to 14, has been squandered though widespread corruption and theft.
The result is a hugely divided nation, with the super-rich surround by extreme poverty.
Indian cities are riddled with slums - there are 500 in Bhopal alone - and thousands of families live in squalor, even those from the middle classes. Sewage runs down the muddy streets lined with shacks made of corrugated iron with no front doors.


Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2094610/France-swoops-rob-UK-13bn-Indian-jet-contract.html#ixzz1l6aAfmBv

India picks French jet over Eurofighter in $10bn dealDassault will now enter into exclusive talks to finalise the deal

Related Stories

French firm Dassault has emerged as the lowest bidder for a $10bn (£6.3bn) contract to supply India jet fighters.
Dassault Aviation, as preferred bidder, will now enter final talks before signing a deal that will supply India's air force with 126 Rafale aircraft.
Correspondents say this is one of the world's biggest defence deals and is a major setback for rival bidder, the Eurofighter Typhoon.
Eurofighter lost out in December on an $8bn deal to supply jets to Japan.
Shares in Dassault Aviation rocketed more than 20% as the latest news broke.
'Purely cost'
The Typhoon is built by the German and Spanish branches of European aerospace giant EADS, Britain's BAE Systems and Italy's Finmeccanica.
Officials at the British High Commission in Delhi said they were disappointed with the decision and would now study the details.
"It was expressly said this was about the cost of the contract, not a reflection on the health of bilateral relations between India and the countries," the commission said.

"Start Quote

Both Germany and the UK invested a lot of time in pushing the Typhoon, so this will hurt"
James HardyIHS Jane's Defence Weekly
A spokesman for the Eurofighter Typhoon consortium told the BBC they were disappointed, but stressed that the decision was not final and negotiations were still going on.
"However, we respect the decision of the Indian MoD. With the Eurofighter Typhoon, we offered the Indian Air Force the most modern combat aircraft available," he said.
"Based on the Indian government feedback, we will now carefully analyse and evaluate this situation together with our European partner companies and their respective governments."
BBC defence and diplomatic correspondent Jonathan Marcus says the Indian air force is going through an unprecedented period of modernisation; a response in part to China's developing air power.Analysts say the Typhoon was widely tipped to be the successful bid
Four other bidders had dropped out in the lengthy Indian selection process.
He says various reasons were in play in the Indian decision, including diversifying from Russian hardware and contractual problems with other bidders.
French Minister of State for Foreign Trade Pierre Lellouche welcomed the deal, the first foreign order for the Rafale multi-role jet.
He said: "This is good news and France needs good news right now... It is good news for our aerospace industry and for our defence industry."
Mr Lellouche also complained that "political pressure applied by our competitors does not make things very easy".
James Hardy, Asia Pacific specialist at IHS Jane's Defence Weekly, said this was a "big loss for Eurofighter".
"The Typhoon was widely tipped to be the favourite and had major political support from the big beasts of the Eurofighter nations. Both Germany and the UK invested a lot of time in pushing the Typhoon, so this will hurt."
Indian Defence Minister AK Antony had earlier cautioned that this remained a "long process" and that no deal would be signed before the end of March.
One Indian defence ministry source confirmed to Reuters that the Rafale had been "much cheaper unit-wise", adding: "Moreover, the Indian air force, which is well-equipped with French fighters, is favouring the French."
India is the biggest arms importer among emerging nations.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-india-16809532

Rafale, France




Key Data


Rafale is a twin-jet combat aircraft capable of carrying out a wide range of short and long-range missions, including ground and sea attack, air defence and air superiority, reconnaissance, and high-accuracy strike or nuclear strike deterrence.
The aircraft were developed for the French Air Force and Navy. The French Air Force and Navy ordered 294 (234 for the air force and 60 for the navy); 82 aircraft had been delivered by the end of 2009.
The Rafale entered into service with French Navy in December 2000, and with the French Air Force in 2004. Ten aircraft are operational on the Charles de Gaulle aircraft carrier.
Rafale B and C entered service with the French Air Force in June 2006, when the first squadron was established. The second air force squadron was set up in 2008.
Navy Rafale F1 standard fighters have air-to-air capability. Deliveries to the navy of the F2 standard, with air-to-ground missiles, began in May 2006 and 17 were delivered in May 2008. F1 aircraft are to be upgraded.
A €3.1bn ($3.89bn) contract to develop the fully capable F3 standard aircraft was awarded to Dassault Aviation (€1.5bn), Snecma (€600m), Thales (€500m) and other French defence contractors by French Ministry of Defence in February 2004. An order for 59 F3 aircraft, 47 for the air force (11 two-seat and 36 single-seat) and 12 (single-seat) for the navy, was placed in December 2004. The Rafale F3 was certified in July 2008. The contract also includes the upgrade of Rafale F2 aircraft.
"The Rafale fighter is produced in three variants - M, B and C."
In March 2007, three French Air Force and three Navy Rafale fighters were deployed in Tajikistan in support of the Nato International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan.
The French Government ordered 60 additional Rafale aircraft in November 2009. The Brazilian Government awarded a $4bn contract to Dassault Aviation in January 2010 to supply 36 Rafale multirole aircraft.
The UAE will acquire the Rafale at a cost of about €2bn ($2.4bn) to replace its 60 aging Mirage fighters.

Cockpit

The cockpit has hands-on throttle and stick control (HOTAS). The cockpit is equipped with a head-up, wide-angle holographic display from Thales Avionique, which provides aircraft control data, mission data and firing cues.
A collimated, multi-image head-level display presents tactical situation and sensor data, and two touch-screen lateral displays show the aircraft system parameters and mission data.
The pilot also has a helmet-mounted sight and display. A CCD camera and on-board recorder records the image of the head-up display throughout the mission.

Weapons

The Rafale can carry payloads of over 9t on 14 hardpoints for the air force version, and 13 for the naval version. The range of weapons includes: Mica, Magic, Sidewinder, ASRAAM and AMRAAM air-to-air missiles; Apache, AS30L, ALARM, HARM, Maverick and PGM100 air-to-ground missiles; and Exocet / AM39, Penguin 3 and Harpoon anti-ship missiles.
For a strategic mission the Rafale can deliver the MBDA (formerly Aerospatiale) ASMP stand-off nuclear missile. In December 2004, the MBDA Storm Shadow / Scalp EG stand-off cruise missile was qualified on the Rafale.
In September 2005, the first flight of the MBDA Meteor BVRAAM beyond visual range air-to-air missile was conducted on a Rafale fighter. In December 2005, successful flight trials were carried out from the Charles de Gaulle of the range of Rafale's weapon systems – Exocet, Scalp-EG, Mica, ASMP-A (to replace the ASMP) and Meteor missiles.
In April 2007, the Rafale carried out the first firing of the Sagem AASM (armement air-sol modulaire - air-to-groung modular weapon) precision-guided bomb, which has both GPS / inertial guidance and, optionally, imaging infrared terminal guidance. Rafale have been equipped with the AASM from 2008. Rafale can carry six AASM misssiles, with each aiming to hit the target with 10m accuracy.
The Rafale has a twin gun pod and a Nexter (formerly Giat) 30mm DEFA 791B cannon, which can fire 2,500 rounds a minute.
"From 2007, the Rafale will be armed with the Sagem AASM precision-guided bomb."
The Rafale is equipped with laser designation pods for laser guidance of air-to-ground missiles.

Countermeasures

The Rafale's electronic warfare system is the Spectra from Thales. Spectra incorporates solid state transmitter technology, radar warner, DAL laser warning receiver, missile warning, detection systems and jammers.

Sensors

The Rafale is equipped with an RBE2 passive electronically scanned radar developed by Thales which has look down and shoot down capability. The radar can track up to eight targets simultaneously and provides threat identification and prioritisation.
Thales is developing an active electronically scanned version of the RBE2 which will equip the Rafale from 2011. Flight tests of the radar onboard the Rafale took place in 2008.
RUAG Aviation has been awarded a $5m contract by Thales in May 2009 to produce sub assemblies for the RBE2 radar to be equipped in the Rafale fighter jet. It will build wired-back structures linking the individual modules together and connecting the radar to the airframe.
The optronic systems include the Thales / SAGEM OSF infrared search and track system, installed in the nose of the aircraft. The optronic suite carries out search, target identification, telemetry and automatic target discrimination and tracking.
Navigation and communications
The communications suite on the Rafale uses the Saturn onboard V/UHF radio, which is a second-generation, anti-jam tactical UHF radio for Nato. Saturn provides voice encryption in fast-frequency hopping mode.
The aircraft is also equipped with fixed-frequency VHF/UHF radio for communications with civil air traffic control. A multifunction information distribution system (MIDS) terminal provides secure, high-data-rate tactical data exchange with NATO C2 stations, AWACS aircraft or naval ships.
The Rafale is powered by two M88-2 engines, each providing a thrust of 75kN.
Rafale is equipped with a Thales TLS 2000 navigation receiver, which is used for the approach phase of flight. The TLS 2000 integrates the instrument landing system (ILS), microwave landing system (MLS) and VHF omni-directional radio-ranger (VOR) and marker functions.
The radar altimeter is the AHV 17 altimeter from Thales, which is suitable for very low flight. The Rafale has a TACAN tactical air navigation receiver for en route navigation and as a landing aid.
The Rafale has an SB25A combined interrogator-transponder developed by Thales. The SB25A is the first IFF using electronic scanning technology.

Engine

The Rafale is powered by two M88-2 engines from SNECMA, each providing a thrust of 75kN. The aircraft is equipped for buddy-buddy refuelling with a flight refuelling hose reel and drogue pack.
The first M88 engine was delivered in 1996. It is a twin-shaft bypass turbofan engine principally suitable for low-altitude penetration and high-altitude interception missions.
The M88 incorporates the latest technologies such as single-piece bladed compressor disks (blisks), an on-polluting combustion chamber, single-crystal high-pressure turbine blades, powder metallurgy disks, ceramic coatings and composite materials.
The M88 engine comprises a three-stage LP compressor with inlet guide vane, an annular combustion chamber, single-stage cooled HP turbine, single-stage cooled LP turbine, radial A/B chamber, variable-section convergent flap-type nozzle and full authority digital engine control (FADEC).
Messier-Dowty provides the "jumper" landing gear, designed to spring out when the aircraft is catapulted by the nose gear strut.Seven Rafale fighters are operational on the Charles de Gaulle aircraft carrier.

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http://www.airforce-technology.com/projects/rafale/
  1. Eurofighter Typhoon v/s Dassault Rafale - Analysis

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FIRST POST

India gives Sarkozy last laugh in spat with Cameron and Boris

France closes in on £13bn Indian defence contract after Boris urges Paris bankers to move to London

BY TIM EDWARDS LAST UPDATED AT 11:50 ON WED 1 FEB 2012
NICOLAS SARKOZY has had the last laugh in his latest spat with Britain after it was announced India is likely to award a £13bn fighter jet contract to a French company at the expense of the UK's BAE Systems.
The news that India has bestowed 'preferred bidder' status on Dassault Rafale in negotiations came a day after London Mayor Boris Johnson called on French bankers to move to London to avoid the eurozone's planned financial transactions tax.
"Bienvenue à Londres," said Johnson, according to the Financial Times. "This is the global capital of finance. It's on your doorstep and if your own president does not want the jobs, the opportunities and the economic growth that you generate, we do."
Johnson was ramming home a point made by his fellow Conservative, Prime Minister David Cameron, who has described as "madness" Sarkozy's plans for a financial transactions levy - also known as a 'Tobin tax' or 'Robin Hood tax'.
At an EU summit Cameron said: "If France goes for [a financial transactions tax], then the door will be open and we will be able to welcome many French banks to the United Kingdom."
The news from India will be particularly sweet for Sarkozy, who before the EU summit got into trouble with the French media for suggesting that "the United Kingdom has no industry any more".
It was later pointed out by French newspapers - and David Cameron - that the UK actually has a larger industrial sector than its neighbour across the Channel.
The loss of a £13bn defence contract to the French might go some way to addressing that imbalance. ·


Read more: http://www.theweek.co.uk/politics/44920/india-gives-sarkozy-last-laugh-spat-cameron-and-boris#ixzz1l6WvuNCw
  • JANUARY 31, 2012, 9:17 PM IST

India This Evening: India's Per Capita Income Crosses $1000

By WSJ Staff

Here is a roundup of news from Indian newspapers, news wires and websites Tuesday, January 31, 2012. The Wall Street Journal has not verified these stories and does not vouch for their accuracy.
India's Per Capita Income Crosses $1000: Reflecting growing prosperity, India's per capita income grew by 15.6 per cent to Rs 53,331 per annum in 2010-11, crossing the half-a-lakh rupees mark for the first time, according to government data. (Source: The Financial Express)
SC Sets Rules for Prosecuting Authorities: The Supreme Court on Tuesday ruled that public officials must decide within three months on applications seeking permission to prosecute government authorities. (Source: DD News)
Cong Releases Manifesto in UP, Promises Freebies and Quota:  The Congress party on Tuesday released its manifesto for Uttar Pradesh promising free electricity to education to ST/SC and backwards castes and also pledged to transform state in the next five years.  (Source: Hindustan Times)
Antony Blames Army for Chief's Age Row: Laying the blame on the army's doors for the controversy over Gen V K Singh's age issue, Defence Minister A K Antony on Tuesday said it occured because the force kept two sets of his date of birth for 36 years and maintained there was no civil-military confrontation. (Source: The Hindu)
France's Dassault Rafale Wins IAF's Biggest Fighter Jet Deal: The government has decided to buy 126 French-made Rafale combat aircraft for the Indian air force, clinching a massive $11 billion defence deal, a top official said Tuesday. (Source: The Indian Express)
Dhoni Ready to Quit Test Captaincy for a Better Replacement: Facing severe criticism for his unimpressive captaincy and performances in Test cricket, under-fire Mahendra Singh Dhoni has offered to quit the leadership role in the longer format of the game if the BCCI feels there is a better replacement waiting in the wings. (Source: The Times of India)
http://blogs.wsj.com/indiarealtime/2012/01/31/india-this-evening-indias-per-capita-income-crosses-1000/?mod=google_news_blog

UK considers Rafale and F-18 as 'interim aircraft'

26 January 2012

Ministry of Defence concerns over the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter have led to military chiefs looking at other fast jets for the UK's aircraft carrier, it has been reported.

According to The Times, Admiral Sir Trevor Soar, the current commander-in-chief fleet, said concerns were growing about rising costs and delays in the JSF programme, something now worsened by order cuts from the US.

Soar, who was addressing defence companies at the ADS Maritime Interest Group, reportedly said the UK might not receive the $100m per piece F-35 jets until a decade after the delivery of the carrier, currently set for 2019.

He was said to be considering the French Dassault Rafale and the US F-18 Super Hornet to give Britain an "interim aircraft capability".

Soar indicated that the JSF would be a major talking point at the next strategic defence review in 2015, the report said.

***UPDATE***
Rees Ward, CEO of ADS, has since said that The Times' reporting of the comments had been "inaccurate".

"The Admiral's comments were wrongly attributed and in certain cases not even raised during the course of his speech or at the event itself as the article alleges," said Ward.

"Had the journalist sought to contact ADS, we could have verified whether these comments were made, but their lack of contact suggests they have accepted at face value the second hand reporting of what has turned out to be an unreliable source. In doing so they have potentially damaged the reputation of a senior member of our armed forces - certainly they have thrown into question their own personal credibility and ultimately the paper for which they write."
http://www.defencemanagement.com/news_story.asp?id=18662
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Decoding 'Rafale' – the beast India bet upon

Last Updated: Wednesday, February 01, 2012, 15:49 2451
 
Tags: Rafale fighter aircraft, Indian Air Force, FranceAjith Vijay Kumar

Now that French aviation major Dassault's fighter jet 'Rafale' has emerged victorious in the dog-fight for India's multi-billion dollar contract for 126 new-generation fighter jets, here's a closer look at the beast we have bet on.

Undoubtedly, Rafale is one of the most modern fighter aircraft in the world today, having proved its mettle in Afghanistan and Libya.

Termed as an 'Ominrole' fighter, the Rafale is versatile and is designed to excel in all sorts of mission conditions as it can engage targets in air, ground or sea with equal agility and precision. India is buying single as well as twin-seat versions of the aircraft.

Fast with Extended Reach

The Rafale boasts of a top speed of Mach 1.8 (1.8 times the speed of sound) with a range of 3,700 km. Its operational altitude ceiling is 50,000 feet.

Rafale's closet competitor Eurofighter Typoon can achieve better speeds but has considerably less range.

The Workhouse

The Rafale is powered by two Snecma M88-2 engines which generate 50 kN (11,250 lbf) of dry thrust and 75 kN (16,900 lbf) with afterburners. The engines can rev-up to combat mode from idle mode in just three seconds.

Superior Design

Rafale is very stable at supersonic speeds thanks to its 'Delta Wings' and closely coupled canards which maximise manoeuvrability, while withstanding 9 g or -3.6 g forces.

Canards increase agility of the aircraft during dog-fights and also reduce landing speed to 213 km/h, thereby allowing for the aircraft's operation from small runways – an important advantage in times of war.

The superior airframe is made up of composite materials (70%) thereby ensuring higher tensile strength, besides leading to a 40% increase in the max take-off weight to empty weight ratio compared with traditional airframes built of aluminium and titanium.

Although the Rafale doesn't boast of a full-aspect stealth capability but comes very close owing to its segregated patterns on the trailing edges of the wings and canards.

The Flight Control System (FCS) of the Rafale is an advanced digital "Fly-by-Wire" system which provides for longitudinal stability. In Fly-by-Wire system, there is no mechanical control between the flight control and the pilot control system.

Rafale's FCS has four back-ups (three digital channels and one separately designed analog channel), with no mechanical back-up to ensure that the common flow remains flawless - Dassault Aviation is considered a master in Fly-by-Wire technology with one million flight hours without a single accident caused by the FCS.

Radar and Sensors

The Rafale is outfitted with the Thales RBE2 passive multi-mode radar. The system is designed to ensure very high levels of situational awareness through the earlier detection and tracking of multiple targets in, or out of, the search domain, bringing the ultimate advantage in air combat.

The Rafale is immune to Radar jamming and comes loaded with 3D capability which helps it zero-down on land as well as targets in sea.

Moreover, the front-sector electro-optical system is completely integrated to ensure operation both in the visible and infrared wavelengths.

More importantly, Rafale comes with an electronic survival system named "SPECTRA", which protects the aircraft against airborne and ground threats.

Related Stories
In Video
The Armoury

The Rafale can carry following weapons:

1. MICA air-to-air 'beyond visual range' (BVR) missiles

2. AASM modular, rocket-boosted air-to-ground precision guided weapon series with guidance kit

3. SCALP long-range stand-off missile

4. AM39 EXOCET anti-ship missile

5. Laser-guided bombs

6. Unguided bombs

7. NEXTER 30M791 30 mm cannon that fires 2500 rounds/min

8. Upcoming - METEOR long-range air-to-air missile
http://zeenews.india.com/news/nation/decoding-rafale-the-beast-india-bet-upon_756114.html

Full coverage

*

Dassault Aviation's Rafale Is Lowest Bidder in India Jet Fighter Contract

Bloomberg - ‎4 hours ago‎
Enlarge image Dassault Rafale Is Lowest Bidder in India Combat Jet Contest Dassault Rafale Is Lowest Bidder in India Combat Jet Contest Chris Ratcliffe/Bloomberg Dassault, whose only customer for the Rafale fighter jet so far is the French armed forces ...

French jet Rafale bags $20bn IAF fighter order; India 'briefs' losing European ...

Times of India - ‎3 hours ago‎
After an exhaustive technical and commercial evaluation spread over five long years, India on Tuesday selected French jet Rafale over the Eurofighter Typhoon for the gigantic almost $20 billion MMRCA ( medium multi-role combat aircraft) programme to ...

Will urge India to reconsider Dassault Rafale fighter deal: British Prime ...

Times of India - ‎3 hours ago‎
Rafale, made by French aviation company Dassault, emerged as preferred bidder in the contest to supply Indian Air Force with 126 warplanes. LONDON: British Prime Minister David Cameron said on Wednesday that India's decision to choose France's Dassault ...

Rafale chosen to bid on $10 billion Indian military contract

NDTV - ‎7 hours ago‎
Dassault emerged as the lowest bidder in the final round, with its offer of 126Rafale multi-role fighters undercutting a competing offer from Eurofighter, a consortium of European companies led by European Aeronautic Defense & Space, according to ...

Decoding 'Rafale' – the beast India bet upon

Zee News - ‎7 hours ago‎
Now that French aviation major Dassault's fighter jet 'Rafale' has emerged victorious in the dog-fight for India's multi-billion dollar contract for 126 new-generation fighter jets, here's a closer look at the beast we have bet on.

Dassault Rafale downs Eurofighter Typhoon to bag $11-billion order to supply ...

Economic Times - ‎9 hours ago‎
Dassault's Rafale fighter edged out the Eurofighter Typhoon in the final round of a prolonged selection process that saw jets from American firms Boeing and Lockheed Martin, Russia's MiG 35 and Swedish jet Saab Gripen getting eliminated in technical ...

Rafale: France's versatile fighter jet

Economic Times - ‎14 hours ago‎
PARIS: France's Rafale multi-role jet, which has sought foreign buyers for a over a decade, is a versatile plane that has flown bombing missions in Libya and Afghanistan. India on Tuesday selected Rafale's manufacturer Dassault Aviation over the ...

Ourview | A jet of limited use at best

Livemint - ‎23 minutes ago‎
Finally, India has set its sights on the Dassault Rafale as its medium multi-role combat aircraft (MMRCA). The choice of the French fighter ends a chapter of suspense in one of the largest defence deals in recent times. As with most such choices, ...

UK to urge India to reconsider warplane decision

Hindustan Times - ‎3 hours ago‎
In this file photo, a Dassault Rafale fighter jet takes part in a flying display during the 49th Paris Air Show. British Prime Minister David Cameron said on Wednesday that India's decision to choose France's Dassault Aviation over Eurofighter as ...

Rafale deal with India a 'vote of confidence', says France

NDTV - ‎9 hours ago‎
The selection of Dassault's Rafale multi-role fighter "goes far beyond the company that makes them, far beyond aerospace -- it is a vote of confidence in the entire French economy," President Nicolas Sarkozy said. Indian and French officials said ...

British PM: Will urge India to change mind on jets

IBNLive.com - ‎1 hour ago‎
PTI London: A "disappointed" British Prime Minister David Cameron on Wednesday said he would do "everything he can" to "encourage" India to reconsider its decision to acquire 126 French-made Rafale fighter jets instead of the UK-backed Eurofighter ...

India to buy 126 Rafale jets for $ 10.4 billion

Moneycontrol.com - ‎11 hours ago‎
The race for the world's biggest fighter jet deal which ended on Tuesday saw the French Rafale fighter emerge as the winner. The Indian Air Force will buy 126 fighters from France for Rs 52000 crores. The Rafale fighter jet built by the French firm ...

Dassault Rafale deal: New fighter is good but price is worrying

India Today - ‎14 hours ago‎
At one level, there is nothing surprising about the decision of the government to begin price negotiations with the Dassault company to purchase their Rafale to fulfill the Indian Air Force's requirement a Medium Multirole Combat Aircraft (MMRCA).

Dassault deal: 108 Rafale jets may be manufactured in India

Economic Times - ‎14 hours ago‎
NEW DELHI: The almost $20 billion MMRCA (medium multi-role combat aircraft ) race to supply 126 fighters to India , which was won by the French jet Rafale on Tuesday isexpectedtoinclude a transfer of technology (ToT) deal.

Rafale edges out Eurofighter

The Hindu - ‎19 hours ago‎
India on Tuesday selected the French Fighter Rafale over the Eurofighter Typhoon in a multi-billion dollar contract for the supply of 126 Medium Multi-Role Combat Aircraft (MMRCA) — the country's largest defence deal to date.

British PM says he will urge India to change mind on Rafale jets

NDTV - ‎2 hours ago‎
PTI, Updated: February 01, 2012 21:01 IST London: A "disappointed" British Prime Minister David Cameron today said he would do "everything he can" to "encourage" India to reconsider its decision to acquire 126 French-made Rafalefighter jets instead of ...

Air Force may get 126 Rafale fighter planes

Business Standard - ‎Jan 31, 2012‎
The Rafale fighter aircraft built by France's Dassault Aviation has emerged the lowest bidder in the contest to sell the Indian Air Force (IAF) 126 medium multi-role combat aircraft. According to sources in the defence ministry, the Rafale has emerged ...

Dassault to Hold Exclusive Talks on India Order for 126 Fighters

BusinessWeek - ‎10 hours ago‎
1 (Bloomberg) -- Dassault Aviation SA, seeking its first export order for Rafale fighters, will begin exclusive negotiations to supply 126 jets to India after being selected as the lowest bidder. The French company and India's defense ministry will ...

Rafale wins multi-billion deal to supply 126 jets

Daily Pioneer - ‎22 hours ago‎
The French built Rafale fighter jet beat Eurofighter on Tuesday to bag the mega defence deal worth over ten billion dollars for supply of 126 medium multi-role combat aircraft (MMRCA) to the Indian Air Force. Being described as the 'mother of all ...

French Rafale favoured for multi-billion dollar India jet deal

Reuters - ‎Jan 31, 2012‎
India's cabinet must sign off on deal * Sale would be lifeline for struggling Rafale * Defence ministry source: Rafale jet is cheaper, preferred By Manoj Kumar and Nigam Prusty NEW DELHI, Jan 31 (Reuters) - France's Rafale emerged on Tuesday as ...

Jubilation in France as Dassault wins deal

The Hindu - ‎20 hours ago‎
India's decision to buy 126 French-made Rafale fighter jets for its air force in a colossal 7.9 billion Euro deal, has understandably made headline news in France with a discreet popping of champagne corks, not just at Dassault Aviation, the makers of ...

IAF gets French wings for a whopping $10.4 billion

Daily News & Analysis - ‎13 hours ago‎
By DNA Correspondent | Place: New Delhi | Agency: DNA French company Dassault Aviation'sRafale on Tuesday bagged a $10.4 billion deal to supply 126 medium multi-role combat aircraft (MMRCA) to the Indian Air Force (IAF). Sources said the process to ...

Rafale bags IAF's USD 10 bn MMRCA deal

Zee News - ‎Jan 31, 2012‎
New Delhi: After being initially ruled out of the race for IAF's USD 10 billion deal for supplying 126 Medium Multirole Combat Aircraft (MMRCA), French contenderRafale has reportedly bagged the prestigious contract. In the process, French contender ...

India clears $20 billion French Rafale jet fighter deal-NewsX

NewsX - ‎Jan 31, 2012‎
French company Rafale has won the contract for 126 fighters worth $20 billion. This is the biggest defense deal of the Indian Air Force . For more log onto: http://alpha.newsx.com.

Dassault is lowest bidder for fighter deal

Livemint - ‎22 hours ago‎
New Delhi: India will begin exclusive negotiations with French defence company Dassault Aviation SA to buy 126 Rafale fighter jets for its air force in a deal valued in excess of $126 billion (Rs 6.3 trillion), marking the culmination of a process that ...

Rafale wins $ 10.4 bn IAF deal to supply 126 jets

IBNLive.com - ‎Jan 31, 2012‎
New Delhi: French company Dassault Aviation's Rafale has won the $10.4 billion deal to supply 126 Medium Multi-Role Combat Aircraft (MMRCA) to the Indian Air Force (IAF). According to sources, Rafale won the multi-billion dollar deal as it was found to ...

Dassault Rafale - the big winner!

Brahmand Defence and Aerospace News - ‎8 hours ago‎
By Ritu Mousumi Tripathy In what could be the first-ever international export deal for it, French defence firm Dassault Aviation appears to have clinched a major contract to supply 126 Rafale combat planes to the Indian Air Force under the Medium ...

Expert view: French Rafale lowest bidder in India

Reuters India - ‎Jan 31, 2012‎
REUTERS - India has selected France's Rafale combat jet as cheapest bidder in a competition to buy 126 fighters and will enter exclusive negotiations with manufacturer Dassault Aviation for a deal worth up to $15 billion, Indian government sources said ...

World's biggest French kiss

Calcutta Telegraph - ‎19 hours ago‎
The Indian Air Force (IAF) has decided French aircraft maker Dassault Aviation's Rafale fighter jet is best suited for it. The Rafale bid was less than the price quoted by four-nation European consortium EADS Cassidian's Eurofighter Typhoon.

French Rafale favored for huge India warplane deal

Reuters UK - ‎20 hours ago‎
By Manoj Kumar and Nicholas Vinocur | NEW DELHI/PARIS (Reuters) - The French-built Rafaleemerged on Tuesday as preferred bidder in a $15 billion contest to supply India with 126 warplanes, lifting hopes for a sale that would boost France's national ...


David Cameron has put British interests in jeopardy by caving in over Europe, warns top Tory David Davis

by James Lyons, Daily Mirror 1/02/2012
Decrease font size Increase font size
David Cameron (Pic: Reuters)
David Cameron has put Britain's national interests in jeopardy by caving in over Europe, senior Tory David Davis warned yesterday.
The PM had vowed to block EU institutions from policing new fiscal rules for the eurozone – only to backtrack this week.
Tory Eurosceptics looked miserable in the Commons as Lib Dems heaped praise on the PM for "re-engaging" with fellow leaders, who were outraged by his refusal to sign the new pact last year.
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His humiliation came on the day India handed a huge £13billion order for fighter jets to France instead of Britain.
Mr Cameron agreed in Brussels on Monday that the European Court of Justice will enforce the eurozone's new "fiscal union". But he admitted yesterday that he may sue other EU countries if the court tries to apply the agreement to Britain.
Mr Davis, his former leadership rival, said: "The European Court has a history of expanding its brief and applying principles nobody thought they would. We have suffered from it in the past and there is a real risk that, by allowing the court to have a say, we will do ourselves harm, without realising it, in the future.
"You will have pressure from people like the French who will not want us to have competitive advantages."
Mr Cameron was ridiculed in the Commons yesterday when he insisted he had "vetoed" an EU treaty in December.
Labour leader Ed Miliband said it was a "phantom veto" because the new ­agreement "talks like a European treaty, it walks like a European treaty, it is a ­European treaty".
He added: "With this Prime Minister a veto isn't for life, it's just for Christmas."
Labour firebrand Dennis Skinner compared Mr Cameron's actions to Neville Chamberlain's appeasement of Nazi Germany. He said: "If this meeting had been held in Munich you would have been coming back waving a piece of paper."
But ex-Lib Dem leader Sir Menzies Campbell welcomed Mr Cameron's "pragmatism" at Monday's summit, which he said would enrage Tory Eurosceptics. Lib Dem deputy leader Simon Hughes also praised the PM on "a much more successful and satisfactory summit" than the meeting in December where he wielded the veto.
The Government was also accused yesterday of failing to support British industry after India gave a massive £13billion order for Eurofighter jets to France.
Thousands of jobs are now under threat as ­manufacturing giant BAE Systems had been banking on the order for at least 126 Typhoons to keep its employees in work.
But the Delhi government named French rival Dassault Rafale as its "preferred bidder" for the warplanes.
The decision comes despite the PM leading a trade mission to India.
Thousands of BAE workers are involved in building Typhoons, with another 15,000 people involved in the supply chain. Unions have already been involved in talks with BAE about losing 3,000 jobs. Unite spokesman Ian Waddell said: "The Typhoon is a superb aircraft which supports thousands of highly skilled jobs in the UK, both at BAE Systems and in the supply chain.
"We're concerned about the serious implications this decision may have. There are other export orders to be won and it is critical the company maintains its commitment to Typhoon."
Shadow Defence Minister Kevan Jones accused the Government of failing to support British industry and called on Mr Cameron to provide "real leadership". He said: "The UK defence industry is vital for the UK economy and deserves real support from the Government.
"Ministers talk about supporting British manufacturing but have disappointed."
david cameron , david davis

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Read more:http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/politics/2012/02/01/david-cameron-has-put-british-interests-in-jeopardy-by-caving-in-over-europe-warns-top-tory-david-davis-115875-23729851/#ixzz1l6Y50N00

JANUARY 31, 2012

French fighters for India

Indian defense officials have announced that they have at long last selected France's Dassault Rafale fighter as the winner of that country's very long running Medium Multi-Role Combat Aircraft  (MMRCA) competition.
India had previously ruled out the Lockheed Martin F-16 and Boeing F/A-18 fighter jets, the Saab Gripen and Soviet Mig 35, narrowing the field down to Dassault and the Eurofighter Typhoon.
Dassault must still reach a contract agreement with the Indian government on terms for the planned purchase of 126 combat jets, which Aviation Week reports is not expected any time soon. AvWeek's Ares blog also has a post discussing the competitive and international implications.
- Bob Cox

Read more here: http://blogs.star-telegram.com/sky_talk/2012/01/french-fighters-for-india.html#storylink=cpy
Article published the Wednesday 01 February 2012 - Latest update : Wednesday 01 February 2012

French press review 1 February 2012

By Michael Fitzpatrick

What do the British queen and the Senegalese president have in common? And what does Pakistan think of France selling fighter jets to India?

Queen Elizabeth II has probably found herself in stranger company in the course of her 60-year reign. But this morning's editorial in Catholic La Croix, which the English monarch shares with Senegal's Abdoulaye Wade, must merit special mention.
Catholic La Croix, perhaps surprisingly, likes the queen. The possible surprise would be based on the fact that Queen Elizabeth is the head of the rival Anglican Church. The real liking comes down to the monarch's ability to remain above political squabbles and ordinary concerns like the global economic crisis or the high price of bread.
Abdoulaye Wade is a different can of beans altogether.
The Senegalese president is 86 years old and has been in power for just 12 years. But he'd like another shot at it, and is widely suspected of positioning his son, Karim, to take over when he drops off the perch. Many of his countrymen are less than happy at the prospect.
Le Monde isn't happy either.
"Retire Mr Wade" is the headline to the centrist paper's main editorial. Le Monde says the price of Wade's determination to hold on to the reins of power could well be the first coup d'état in Senegal's history. The immovable president has little to be proud of. Waste, corruption and misery are the words most frequently used to characterise his regime. Human rights have gone steadily backwards under Wade's rule.
Business daily Les Echos is delighted at the news that the French aviation company, Dassault, which also owns Le Figaro, has agreed a deal with the Indian airforce for 126 Rafale fighter planes, with a catalogue price variously estimated at between 10 and 15 billion euros.
The deal still has to be finalised and Les Echos points out that no fewer than 108 of the 126 jets will be built in India under a technology transfer agreement. I wonder what the military in neighbouring Pakistan are thinking this morning about the Indian deal?
TAGS: ABDOULAYE WADE - AIRPLANE - ECONOMY - FRANCE - FRENCH POLITICS - FRENCH PRESS REVIEW - PRESS REVIEW -QUEEN ELIZABETH II - SENEGAL - UNITED KINGDOM
http://www.english.rfi.fr/france/20120201-french-press-review-1-february-2012


''''Major technology transfers'''' in India fighter jets deal: Sarkozy

FEBRUARY 01, 2012
RECORDER REPORT
0 COMMENTSPresident Nicolas Sarkozy said Tuesday that a deal for French firm Dassault to sell Rafale fighter jets to India would include significant transfers of technology.

Hailing the deal, Sarkozy also said the French state would back Dassault in final talks on the details of the agreement.
"The negotiation of the contract will begin very soon with the full support of French authorities.

It will include major transfers of technology guaranteed by the French state," he said.

"France welcomes the Indian government''s decision to chose a French plane and to enter into exclusive negotiations with Dassault," Sarkozy said.
"This announcement comes following a competition that was at a very high level, was fair and transparent and which opposed two European finalists." He said the Rafale was chosen "thanks to the competitiveness of the global cost of the aircraft over its lifetime."
French and Indian officials said Tuesday that Dassault had beaten the Eurofighter consortium for the right to enter final exclusive talks with India on providing 126 Rafale fighter jets.

The estimated $12 billion (nine billion euro) contract - the first sale of the multi-role Rafales to a foreign buyer - gave a much-needed boost to the Rafale programme.
http://www.brecorder.com/general-news/single/599/172/1149456/

Dassault Rafale

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Rafale
A Rafale B (foreground), and a Rafale C (background) of the French Air Force
RoleMultirole fighter aircraft
National originFrance
Manufacturer Dassault Aviation
First flight4 July 1986
Introduction4 December 2000
StatusIn production, in service
Primary usersFrench Air Force
French Navy
Program cost39.6 billion (1 January 2008[1])
Unit costRafale C: 64 millionUS$82.3 million(flyaway cost, 2008)[1]
Rafale M: 70 millionUS$90.5 million(flyaway cost, 2008)[1]
Unit cost: 64 million US$90.5 million(dependent on type/variant and can be as high as 90 millionUS$124 million, 2010)[2]
The Dassault Rafale (French pronunciation: [ʁafal]squall)[3] is a French twin-enginedelta-wing multi-role jet fighter aircraft designed and built by Dassault Aviation. It is called an "omnirole" fighter by its manufacturer.[4]
In the late 1970s, the French Air Force and Navy were seeking replacements for its aircraft. To save development costs, France agreed with four other nations to produce an air dominance fighter, but subsequent disagreements led to a split. To satisfy stringent criteria formulated by the Ministry of Defense, Dassault built atechnology demonstrator to prove the viability of its new product. Further development led to the current Rafale variants, which embody innovative avionics and aerodynamics, optimised for air supremacy operations.
Introduced in 2000, the Rafale is being produced both for land-based use with theFrench Air Force and for carrier-based operations with the French Navy. It has also been marketed for export to several countries, including selection by the Indian Air Force.[5]

Contents

  [hide

[edit]Development

[edit]Origins

Logo with black stylised word "Rafale" against white background
The logo of the Dassault Rafale programme
In the mid-1970s, both the French Air Force (Armée de l'Air) and Navy (Marine nationale) had requirements for a new generation of fighters to replace those in or about to enter service.[6]Because their requirements were similar, and to reduce cost, both departments issued a common request for proposal.[7] In 1979 Dassault joined the Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm/British Aerospace "European Collaborative Fighter" project which was named the "European Combat Aircraft".[8] This project collapsed in 1981 but in 1983 the "Future European Fighter Aircraft" (FEFA) programme was begun. Italy, Spain, West Germany, France and the United Kingdom agreed to jointly develop a new fighter, although the latter three had their own aircraft developments.[9]
A number of factors led to the eventual split between France and the four countries. France wanted Dassault to lead the project; moreover, France demanded a swing-role fighter that was lighter than a design desired by the other four nations.[6] For these reasons, France and the other nations split in 1985, after which France committed to its own design.[10][11] These nations would develop what would later be named the Eurofighter Typhoon.[12][13]

[edit]Technology demonstrator

In France, the government proceeded with its own programme. The French Ministry of Defense required an aircraft capable of air-to-air and air-to-ground, all-day and adverse weather operations. It would perform roles previously filled by an assortment of dedicated platforms, including the JaguarF-8P CrusaderMirage F1C/R/TMirage 2000/N, Etendard IVPM and Super Etendard.[6] In June 1982, Dassault announced it was developing a successor to the Mirage 2000.[9] On 13 April 1983, France awarded Dassault a contract for two Avion de Combat eXpérimental(ACX) demonstrators, later revised down to one.
The Dassault Rafale A technology demonstrator in 2006
The resultant Rafale A technology demonstrator was a large-delta winged fighter, with all-moving foreplanes, embodying fly-by-wire (FBW) flight control system.[6] The technology demonstrator was rolled out in December 1985 in Saint-Cloud, making its maiden flight on 4 July 1986 from Istres.[6] It was initially powered by General Electric F404-GE-400 afterburning turbofans found on the F-18 Hornet, instead of the Snecma M88, to reduce the risk that often comes with a first flight, and since the M88 was not considered sufficiently mature for the initial trials programme.[3][6] It was not until May 1990 when the M88 replaced the port F404 in the demonstrator; thereafter, it reached Mach 1.4 and demonstrated supercruise. After 865 flights, Rafale A was retired in January 1994.[6]
With the fall of the Berlin Wall and the subsequent collapse of the Soviet Union, signalling the end of the Cold War, the French government considerably reduced the budget allocated to defence. The French Air Force was reorganised, the Mirage 5F was completely phased out and a total of 55 Mirage F1Cs were upgraded to a tactical fighter configuration, redesignated as Mirage F1CT. The Rafale's development was stalled by a lack of available funds, prolonging the development considerably.[6]

[edit]Testing

To meet various roles expected to be performed by the new platform, the Air Force required two variants: the single-seat "Rafale C", with Cstanding for chasseur (fighter), and the "Rafale B", with B standing for biplace (two-seater). The prototype of the C model (designated C01) completed its first flight on 19 May 1991, signalling the start of a test programme which primarily aims to expand the flight envelope, test the M88-2 engines and, later, man/machine interface and weapons.[14] Due to budget constraints, the second single-single-seat prototype was never built.[15]
Pale gray jet aircraft flying towards left of camera. Smoke trial the aircraft's wing tips
Rafale B at the Paris Air Show 2007
The C01 differed significantly from the Rafale A. Although superficially identical to the technology demonstrator, it was smaller and more stealthy through the coating the canopy with gold, re-designing the fuselage-fin joint, and the addition of radar-absorbent materials (RAM). This aircraft also saw extensive application of composite and other materials, which both reduce the radar cross-section (RCS) and weight. Moreover, Dassault opted to reject variable engine inlets and a dedicated air brake, which lessens maintenance loads and saves weight.[16]
The B01, the only prototype of the two-seat B variant, made its maiden flight on 30 April 1993.[14]It is 350 kilograms (772 lb) heavier than the single-seater, but carries 400 litres (106 US gal) less fuel. The aircraft was used for weapon-systems testing. Later it saw validation roles regarding weapon separation and, specifically, the carriage of heavy loads. The aircraft normally flies with 2,000-litre (528 USgal) external tanks, two Apache/Scalp cruise missiles, in addition to four air-to-air missiles[17]
A French Navy Rafale M performing atouch-and-go landing on the deck of the carrier USS John C. Stennis (CVN-74).
The Navy, meanwhile, sought a carrier-based aircraft to supersede its fleet of ageing Etendard IPVMs, F-8P Crusaders and Super Etendard Modernises. Faced with no funds with which to develop a suitable fighter, the Navy was forced into modernising the Crusaders. Eventually, the requirement was met with the Rafale M, with M standing for Marine.
The prototype (M01) first flew on 12 December 1991, followed by the second on 8 November 1993.[14][18] It featured greatly reinforced undercarriage to cope with the phenomenal stress on landing, an arrestor hook, and "jump strut" nosewheel, which only extends as the aircraft takeoff during a catapult launch.[14] It also features a built-in ladder, carrier-based microwave landing system, and the new fin-tip Telemir system which enables its inertial navigation system to communicate with the aircraft carrier.[17]
Altogether, the modifications and additions makes it 500 kilograms (1,100 lb) heavier than the other variants.[19] Nevertheless, Rafale M still retains high commonality with the Air Force's variants, although this means inability of its multi-spar wings to be folded (a vital asset with carrier-borne operations). However, this coincided with the then latest nuclear-powered carrier to enter service, the Charles de Gaulle, which was larger than the FS Foch and Clemenceau.[17]
As France had no land-based catapult test facility, catapult trials were initially carried out between during July–August  1992 and early the following year, at NAS Lakehurst in New Jersey. The aircraft then carried out trials aboard the carrier FS Foch in April 1993. At the controls of Dassault's chief test pilot, Yves Kerhervé, M02 made its maiden flight in November that year, while the first prototype completed the third round of testing at Lakehurst in November and December 1993.[19]

[edit]Into production

Initially, the Rafale B was to be just a trainer, but the Gulf War and Kosovo War showed that a second crew member is invaluable on strike and reconnaissance missions; thus, in 1991 the Air Force switched its preferences towards the two-seater, announcing that 60% of the Rafale fleet would be made up of the variant.[20] The AdA originally envisaged taking delivery of 250 Rafales, but this was revised downwards to 234 aircraft, made up of 95 "A" and 139 "B" models";[18][21] this was further reduced to 212 aircraft.[20] The Navy, meanwhile, had 60 Rafales on order, down from 86 due to budget cuts.[18][20] Of the 60, 25 would be M single-seaters and 35 two-seat Ns.[21]
Landscape photograph of two jet parked side-by-side on carrier deck, with faint white line running down the middle.
Two Rafales on the deck of the Charles de Gaulle by sunrise.
Production of the first aircraft series formally started in December 1992, but was suspended in November 1995 due to political and economic uncertainty. Production only resumed in January 1997 after the Ministry of Defense and Dassault agreed on a 48-aircraft (28 firm and 20 options) production run with delivery between 2002 and 2007.[20] It was not until 1999 that a production Rafale M flew.[citation needed] A combined 180 Rafales have been ordered as of 2011.[22]
The marine version was a high priority to replace the older F-8E(FN) Crusader; a total of 12 were still in service on 15 December 1999, when the type was retired.[23] Service deliveries began in 2001 and the type entered service on 4 December 2000, though the first squadron, Flotille 12, did not actually reform until 18 May 2001. The unit embarked on the Charles de Gaulle in 2002, following an extended operational evaluation that included flying limited escort and tanker missions in support of Operation Enduring Freedom over Afghanistan, becoming fully operational on 25 June 2004.[citation needed] The Armée de l'Airreceived its first three Rafale Bs (to F2 standards) in late December 2004. They went to the Centre d'Expériences Aériennes Militaires(CEAM) at Mont-de-Marsan for operational evaluation and associated pilot conversion training.[18]
The total programme cost, as of 2010, is around €40.690 billion, which translates to a unit programme cost of approximately €142.3 million. The unit flyaway price as of 2010 is €101.1 million for the F3+ version.[1]

[edit]Design

[edit]Overview

The Rafale features a delta wing combined with active integrated (close-coupled) canard to maximize maneuverability, while withstanding 9 gor −3.6 g)[24] and maintaining stability in flight.[25] The canard also reduces landing speed to 115 knots (213 km/h; 132 mph). According to internal sources (Les essais en vol du Rafale) low speed limit is 100 knots (190 km/h; 120 mph), but 80 knots (150 km/h; 92 mph) is sometimes demonstrated during airshows by pilots willing to showcase "low speed qualities of the aircraft". "A minimum of 15 kt have been reached during simulated combat vs a Mirage 2000 by an aggressive pilot."[25] The aircraft can operate from 400-metre (1,300 ft) runways.[24]
Although not a full-aspect stealth aircraft, the Rafale was designed for a reduced radar cross-section. To reduce the radar profile, extensive use of composite materials and serrated patterns on the trailing edges of the wings and canards have been incorperated on the Rafale.[26]

[edit]Sensors and avionics

OSF is visible upfront, beside the refueling boom.
Annotated diagram of SPECTRA's elements
Built as an air supremacy fighter, the Rafale features an advanced avionics suite; which includes several passive sensor systems. The front-sector electro-optical system or Optronique Secteur Frontal (OSF), developed by Thales, is completely integrated within the aircraft and can operate both in the visible and infrared wavelengths.[27]
The Rafale core avionics systems employ an Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA), called MDPU (Modular Data Processing Unit). This architecture hosts all the main aircraft functions such as theFlight management system, Data Fusion, Fire Control, and the Man-Machine Interface.[28][N 1] The total value of the radar, electronic communications and self-protection equipment is about 30% of the cost of the entire aircraft.[29]
The Rafale featured an integrated electronic survival system named "SPECTRA", which protects the aircraft against airborne and ground threats.[30] SPECTRA allowed operations over Libya without a reliance upon dedicated Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses (SEAD) platforms.[31]
The Rafale's ground attack capability was initially limited by the lack of an advanced targeting pod;[32] this was rectified by the addition of Thales Optronique's Reco New Generation/Areos reconnaissance and Damocles targeting pods electro-optical/laser designation pod.[29] Areos is an all-weather, night-and-day-capable reconnaissance system, designed with the ability to transmit images to ground stations in real-time.[33]

[edit]Radar

The Rafale is typically outfitted with the Thales RBE2 passive electronically scanned multi-mode radar. Thales claims to have achieved unprecedented levels of situational awareness through the earlier detection and tracking of multiple air targets for close combat and long-range interception, as well as real-time generation of three-dimensional maps for terrain-following and the real-time generation of high resolution ground maps for navigation and targeting.[citation needed]
The new Thales RBE2 AA Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) radar is planned to replace the existing passively scanned array of the RBE2Thales will begin deliveries of the new radar in August 2010 for use on the fourth tranche of Rafale aircraft. A total of 60 tranche four aircraft have been ordered to date. A Rafale demonstrator flew began test flights in 2002 and has totaled 100 flight hours since As of December 2011. "A European production line for T/R modules has been set up and six development AESAs had been delivered and three pre-series AESAs were in production, with first deliveries to Dassault Aviation planned for 2011.[33]
Qualification of the new radar is expected by the DGA in early 2013, as part of a rolling programme of continuous improvements for the Rafale.The first production Rafale to be delivered with the AESA will be an Air Force single-seat Rafale C which will make its maiden flight in 2012. It is anticipated that the first five Armée de l'Air aircraft with the AESA will be operational by the end of 2013. By early 2014, the first Air Force front-line squadron will receive Rafales equipped with the AESA radar; the French Navy is slated to receive AESA-equipped Rafales from 2013.[34]

[edit]Cockpit

The cockpit uses a Martin-Baker Mark 16F "zero-zero" ejection seat, i.e., capable of being used at zero speed and zero altitude. The seat is inclined 29° to improve G-force tolerance. The canopy hinges open to the right. An on-board oxygen generating system developed by Air Liquide is provided to eliminate the need for multiple oxygen canisters.[35]
The cockpit includes a wide-angle holographic head-up display (HUD), two head-down flat-panel colour multi-function displays (MFDs) and a center collimated display. Display interaction is by means of touch input for which the pilot wears silk-lined leather gloves. In addition, in full development, the pilot will have a head-mounted display (HMD).[36]
The pilot flies the aircraft with a side-stick controller mounted on his right and a throttle on his left. These incorporate multiple hands-on-throttle-and-stick (HOTAS) controls. The Rafale cockpit is also planned to include Direct Voice Input (DVI), allowing for pilot action by voice commands.[37]

[edit]Standards

Initial deliveries of the Rafale M were to the F1 ("France 1") standard. This meant that the Flotille 12 aircraft was suitable for air-to-air combat, replacing the Vought F-8 Crusader as the Aviation Navale's carrier-based fighter, but not equipped or armed for air-to-ground operations.[citation needed]
Deliveries to Flotille 11 and to Flotille 12 were to the "F2" standard, adding support for air-to-ground and reconnaissance roles. In May 2006, the first Rafale M to the F2 standard were delivered to the French Navy.[38] The Rafale M is the only fixed-wing combat aircraft flown by the Aviation Navale, and plans are to upgrade all airframes to the "F3" standard, with terrain-following 3D radar and nuclear capability, from early in the decade following 2010.[39] The first Rafale C delivered to the Armée de l'Air, in June 2005, was to the F2 standard.[citation needed]
A total of 59 Rafale F3s were delivered from June 2008 to January 2012 (47 for the French Air Force (36 Rafale C + 11 Rafale B), plus 12 Rafale M carrier-borne fighters for the French Navy. The latest, "fully Omnirole F3 standard is capable of undertaking an extremely wide range of roles: air defence/air superiority missions with Mica IR and EM air-to-air missiles, precision attacks with Scalp cruise missiles and AASMHammer modular air-to-surface armaments, anti-ships strikes with the acclaimed AM39 Exocet sea-skimmer, reconnaissance with the Thales new generation reconnaissance pod, and nuclear deterrence with ASMP-A missiles.[40]

[edit]Engines

The Snecma M88 engine in the Rafale develops 50 kN (11,250 lbf) of dry thrust and 75 kN (16,900 lbf) with afterburners. They allow it to supercruise with four missiles and a 1,250-liter belly drop tank. The naval version (Rafale M) can supercruise up to Mach 1.4 while carrying six air-to-air missiles (MBDA MICA).[41][42]

[edit]Operational history

[edit]France

[edit]Overview

The Rafale is now in service in the trials and training role with the French Air Force (CEAM/EC 5/330). Escadron de Chasse 1/7 at Saint-Dizier was expected to receive a nucleus of 8–10 Rafale F2s during the summer of 2006, and was set to enter full operational service (with robust air-to-air and stand off air-to-ground precision attack capabilities) during mid-2007 (when EC 1/7 will have about 20 aircraft, 15 two-seaters and five single-seaters).[43] In February 2011, Rafales flew demonstrations in India, including air-to-air combat against Su-30s.[44]
A Rafale M flies above the aircraft carrierUSS John C. Stennis.
In November 2009 the French government ordered an additional 60 aircraft to take the total order for the French Air Force and Navy to 180.[45] The Rafale is planned to be the French Air Force's primary combat aircraft until 2040 or later.[46]
The Rafale M is fully compatible with US Navy aircraft carriers and some French Navy pilots have qualified to fly the aircraft from US Navy flight decks.[47] On 4 June 2010, during an exercise on theUSS Harry S. Truman (CVN-75), a French Rafale became the first jet fighter of a foreign navy to have its jet engine changed on board an American aircraft carrier.[48]

[edit]Afghanistan

The first Rafale deployed in a combat zone were those of the French Navy during "Mission Héraclès", the French participation in "Operation Enduring Freedom". They flew from the Charles de Gaulle over Afghanistan as early as 2002, but the F1 standard precluded air-to-ground missions and the Rafale did not see any action. In June 2002, while Charles de Gaulle was in the Arabian Sea, Rafale conducted several patrols near the India-Pakistan border.[49]
In 2007, after a "crash program" enhancement six Rafales were given the ability to drop laser-guided bombs, in view of engaging them in Afghanistan. Three of these aircraft belonging to the Air Force were deployed to Dushanbe in Tajikistan, while the three others were Rafale Marines of the Navy on board the Charles De Gaulle.[50] The first mission occurred on 12 March 2007, and the first GBU-12 was launched on 28 March in support of embattled Dutch troops in Southern Afghanistan, marking the operational début of the Rafale.[51]

[edit]Libya

On 19 March 2011, French Rafales began conducting reconnaissance and strike missions over Libya in Opération Harmattan, in support ofUnited Nations Security Council Resolution 1973; initial targets were artillery pieces laying seige around the rebel city of Benghazi.[52] The Rafale could operate in Libya without the support of Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses (SEAD) aircraft, using the onboard Spectra self-defense system instead.[31]
A Rafale M landing on an aircraft carrier.
The Rafale would typically conduct six-hour sorties over Libyan airspace, carrying an armament of four MICA air-to-air missiles, three AASM "Hammer" bombs, a Thales Damoclès targeting pod and two drop tanks;[31] these patrols required multiple aerial refuelling operations per sortie from coalition tanker aircraft.[53] The AASM precision-guidance weapon system, utilising bombs weighing between 125 kilograms (275.6 lb) and 1,000 kilograms (2,204.6 lb), allowed the Rafale to conduct high-altitude bombing missions.[53] Reportedly, Rafale crews preferred to use GPS-guided munitions due to greater reliability and range. Storm Shadow SCALP weapons were deployed on only one or two sorties, such as against a Libyan airbase at Al-Jufra.[54]
In 2011, aviation journalist Craig Hoyle speculated that the Rafale's performance in Libya is likely to be pivotal to the aircraft's export future, reporting that the Rafale had managed to maintain a high operational rate throughout the Libyan deployment. Hoyle also noted that the Libyan combat experience had caused several urgent operational requirements to present themselves, such as the need for a lighter ground-attack munition and for modifications to the ASSM weapon to be more effective when used in the close air support role.[53]

[edit]Potential customers

Dassault Rafale Taxies to the runway for take off at Aero India 2011, Yelahanka Air force base in BangaloreIndia
The Rafale was one of the six fighter aircraft competing for India's tender for 126 multi-role fighters. In April 2011, the Indian Air Force (IAF) shortlisted Dassault Rafale and Eurofighter Typhoon for the contract.[55] On 31 January 2012, the IAF announced the Rafale as the preferred bidder in the competition.[56][5]
In January 2006, the French newspaper Journal du Dimanche reported that Libya wanted to order 13–18 Rafales "in a deal worth as much as $3.24 billion".[57] In December 2007, Saif al-Islam Gaddafi openly declared the Libyan interest in the Rafale.[58] Greece has also expressed an interest in the French fighter, possibly in exchange for its fleet of Mirages.[59] Libya did not order any Rafales; ironically, less than three years later, during the 2011 Libyan civil war, French Rafales were dispatched over Libya as a part of the military intervention there; missiles such as SCALP EG were deployed from carrier-based Rafales.[60] During 2006, while there was potentially trouble with Anglo-American negotiations over the F-35 JSF, there was talk of purchasing the Rafale M for the British Royal Navy.[61][62] The British amended their JSF to the conventional CATOBAR carrier variant and their aircraft carriers will be fitted with catapults and able to aircraft such as Rafales.[63]
In February 2007, it was reported that Switzerland was considering the Rafale and other fighters to replace its Northrop F-5 Tiger IIs.[64] The one month evaluation started in October 2008 at Emmen Airforce Base consisting of approx. 30 evaluation flights. The Rafale along with theSaab JAS 39 Gripen and the Eurofighter were to be evaluated.[65] In September, La Tribune reported that a sale to Morocco had fallen through, the government selecting the F-16 instead.[66] In October 2007, La Tribune's earlier report appeared to have been confirmed that the Rafale would not be bought.[67]
In January 2008, O Estado de S. Paulo reported that the Brazilian Defence Minister visited France to discuss the possibility of acquiring Rafale fighters for the F-X2 program. In June 2008, the Brazilian Air Force divulged a Request For Information to the following companies and their aircraft: Boeing F/A-18E/F Super HornetLockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II, Dassault Rafale, Su-35Gripen NG, and Eurofighter Typhoon.[68] In October 2008, it was reported that Brazilian Air Force had selected three finalists for F-X2; Dassault Rafale, Gripen NG and Boeing F/A-18E/F.[69] On 7 September 2009, during a visit by French President Nicolas Sarkozy, Brazil announced a pact with France and that the nations are in contract negotiations to buy 36 Rafales.[70] The crash of two Rafales in the Mediterranean off Perpignan on 24 September 2009 after a midair collision, comes at a delicate time for the Brazil-France negotiations.[71] On 5 January 2010, media reports stated that the final evaluation report by the Brazilian Air Force placed the Gripen ahead of the other two contenders. The decisive factor was apparently the overall cost of the new fighters, both in terms of unit cost, and operating and maintenance costs.[72][73] Some sources say that Rafale was chosen by the Defense Ministry,[74] but there has been no confirmation on this. In February, 2011, the press announced that the new president of Brazil, Dilma Rousseff, had decided in favor of the American F-18 fighter.[75] On 28 February 2011, the Minister of Finance, Guido Mantega, said the issue would not be resolved in the current year, citing "lack of resources", due to budgetary constraints for the new fiscal year.[76]
In February 2009, French President Nicolas Sarkozy announced that Kuwait was considering buying up to 28 Rafales, but with no firm order then. The same month, France offered Rafales to Oman to replace its ageing fleet of SEPECAT Jaguars.[77] But in 2010, Oman prefers to order the Typhoon.[78]
Weapon complement of the Rafale
The United Arab Emirates Air Force was interested in an upgraded version of the Rafale with more powerful engines and radar, and advanced air to air missiles.[79] They have now started to explore a purchase of the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet[80] or Eurofighter Typhoon.[81] This is reported to be because France's Defense Minister Hervé Morin has asked the UAE to pay 2 billion euros of the total cost to upgrade the Rafale.[82] Deputy Supreme Commander of the UAE Armed Forces,Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan has called the French offer "uncompetitive and unworkable".[83]
Leaked United States State Department cables have said that "French representatives have tried to spin the Rafale's dismal performance in the global market to be the result of U.S. government political pressure rather than the aircraft's shortcomings".[84]

[edit]Variants

Rafale B/C and M
Rafale A
Technology demonstrator, first flying in 1986.
Rafale D
Dassault used this designation (D for "discret") in the early 1990s to emphasise the new semi-stealthy design features.
Rafale B
Two-seater version for the Armée de l'Air.
Rafale C
Single-seat version for the Armée de l'Air.
Rafale M
Carrier-borne version for the Aéronavale, which entered service in 2002. The Rafale M weighs about 500 kg (1,100 lb) more than the Rafale C. For carrier operations, the M model has a strengthened airframe, longer nose gear leg to provide a more nose-up attitude, larger tailhook between the engines, and a built-in boarding ladder.
Rafale N
Originally called the Rafale BM, was a planned two-seater version for the Aéronavale. Budget constraints and training costs have been cited as grounds for its cancellation.

[edit]Operators

 France
180 ordered with 93 delivered as of December 2010[22][85]
 India
Indian Air Force has selected the Rafale as preferred bidder for its 126 Medium Multi-Role Combat Aircraft (MMRCA) requirement.[86][87]

[edit]Accidents

  • On 6 December 2007, a French Air Force twin-seat Rafale crashed during a training flight. The pilot, who was the only person on board the fighter, was killed in the accident.[88]
  • On 24 September 2009, after unarmed test flights, two French Navy Rafales returning to the Charles de Gaulle, collided in mid-air about 30 kilometers (19 mi) from the town of Perpignan in southwest France. One test pilot, identified as François Duflot, was killed in the accident, while the other was successfully rescued.[89]
  • On 28 November 2010, a Rafale from carrier Charles de Gaulle crashed in the Arabian Sea. This aircraft was supporting Allied operations in Afghanistan. The pilot ejected safely and was recovered by a SAR helicopter from the carrier. Later reports said the engine stopped after being starved of fuel due to confusion by the pilot in switching fuel tanks.[90]

[edit]Specifications

Meteor, BVR Air-to-Air Missile
Storm Shadow-Scalp EG, Long-range, cruise air-to-surface missile
GBU-12 Paveway II
AASM-Hammer family of weapons
An AM39 aircraft-launched Exocet
MICA: Short to Medium-Range Air-to-Air Tactical Missile
Data from Dassault Aviation,[91] Superfighters,[92] French Navy,[93]International Directory of Military Aircraft[94]
General characteristics
  • Crew: 1–2
  • Length: 15.27 m (50.1 ft)
  • Wingspan: 10.80 m (35.4 ft)
  • Height: 5.34 m (17.5 ft)
  • Wing area: 45.7 m² (492 ft²)
  • Empty weight: 9,500 kg (C), 9,770 kg (B),[93] 10,196 kg (M) ()
  • Loaded weight: 14,016 kg (30,900 lb)
  • Max. takeoff weight: 24,500 kg (C/D), 22,200 kg (M) (54,000 lb)
  • Powerplant: 2 × Snecma M88-2 turbofans
    • Dry thrust: 50.04 kN (11,250 lbf) each
    • Thrust with afterburner: 75.62 kN (17,000 lbf) each
  • Fuel capacity: 4,700 kg (10,000 lb) internal
Performance
Armament
Avionics

[edit]See also

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

[edit]References

Notes
  1. ^ Quote: "The core of the enhanced capabilities of the RAFALE lies in a new Modular Data Processing Unit (MDPU). It is composed of up to 18 flight line-replaceable modules, each with a processing power 50 times higher than that of the 2084 XRI type computer fitted on the early versions of Mirage 2000-5."
Citations
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  2. ^ "Projet de loi de finances pour 2009 - Défense - Equipement des forces (in French). Senat, 2009. Retrieved: 5 November 2011.
  3. a b Spick 2000, p. 433.
  4. ^ "Rafale, the omnirole fighter." FoxThree n°14," (Dassault Aviation / Snecma / Thales). Retrieved: 5 January 2012.
  5. a b "Dassault Rafale wins MMRCA deal beating Eurofighter Typhoon." The Times of India, 31 January 2012. Retrieved: 31 January 2012.
  6. a b c d e f g h Williams 2002, p. 92.
  7. ^ "Omnirole by design." Dassault Aviation, 2006.
  8. ^ Buttler 2000, p. 134.
  9. a b Eden et al. 2004, p. 168.
  10. ^ Lewis, Paul (3 August 1985). "3 European Countries plan Jet Fighter Project"New York Times: p. 31.
  11. ^ Donne, Michael (3 August 1985). "Why three into one will go; Europe's new combat aircraft". Financial Times.
  12. ^ Spick 2000, pp. 432, 436.
  13. ^ Williams 2002, pp. 50, 92.
  14. a b c d Eden et al. 2004, p. 169.
  15. ^ Williams 2002, pp. 92–93.
  16. ^ Williams 2002, p. 93.
  17. a b c Williams 2002, p. 94.
  18. a b c d "Le programme Rafale" (in French). Avions-militaires.net, 15 October 2010.
  19. a b Williams 2002, p. 95.
  20. a b c d Eden et al. 2004, p. 170.
  21. a b Williams 2002, p. 108.
  22. a b c d "'Projet de loi de finances pour 2011: Défense – Equipement des forces" (in French). Sénat of France, 2010. Retrieved: 2 April 2011.
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  38. ^ "Into combat with the Navy." Fox Three, n°11, June 2007.
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  41. ^ "Air defense mission for flotille F12." Fox Three, Issue 8, p. 8. Retrieved: 30 March 2011.
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  78. ^ Hoyle, Craig. "Oman edges closer to Typhoon deal says UK."flightglobal.com, 9 April 2010. Retrieved: 5 January 2012.
  79. ^ Gale, Ivan. "UAE wants its fighters its own way." thenational.ae.Retrieved: 5 January 2012.
  80. ^ Tran, Pierre. "UAE May Ditch Rafale." defensenews.com.Retrieved: 15 October 2010
  81. ^ Hoyle, Craig. "Dubai: UAE issues shock Eurofighter Typhoon request." Flightglobal, 12 November 2011.
  82. ^ "UAE may ditch France to award $10bn jet deal to US."emirates247.com, 23 September 2010. Retrieved: 6 January 2012.
  83. ^ McGinley, Shane. "UAE royal blasts Dassault over fighter jet deal." Arabian Business Publishing Ltd., 16 November 2011.
  84. ^ Blumenthal, Les. "WikiLeaks: U.S. officials pushed Brazil to buy Boeing fighters." McClatchy Newspapers, 16 December 2010.
  85. ^ "France Warns of Rafale's Production End"Defense News, 7 December 2011.
  86. ^ "Rafale wins IAF's $ 10.4 billion deal to supply 126 jets." IBN-Live, 31 January 2012. Retrieved: 31 January 2012.
  87. ^ http://zeenews.india.com/news/nation/rafale-bags-iaf-s-usd-10-bn-mmrca-deal_755948.html "Rafale bags IAF's USD 10 bn MMRCA deal."] zeenews, 31 January 2012. Retrieved: 31 January 2012.
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  89. ^ Hoyle, Criag. "Aviation News: French navy locates pilot's body with crashed Rafale." Flight Global. Retrieved: 23 July 2011.
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  91. ^ "Rafale Aircraft Characteristics." Dassault Aviation. Retrieved: 15 October 2010.
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  93. a b "Rafale M." (English translation) French Navy. Retrieved: 15 October 2010.
  94. ^ Frawley 2002, p. 69.
Bibliography

[edit]External links


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Arms race

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The term arms race, in its original usage, is a competition between two or more parties for the best armed forces. Each party competes to produce larger numbers of weapons, greater armies, or superior military technology in a technological escalation. Nowadays the term is commonly used to describe any competition where there is no absolute goal, only the relative goal of staying ahead of the other competitors, essentially the goal of proving to be "better".

Contents

  [hide

[edit]Examples of arms races

[edit]WWI naval arms race

From 1891 to 1919, an arms race between several European countries, including Germany, France, Russia, and a few more took place. Specifically, Germany's envy of Britain's superior navy in the run up to World War I resulted in a costly building competition of Dreadnought-class ships. This tense arms race lasted until June 1914, when, after two antagonic power blocs were formed because of the rivalry, the World War broke out. After the war, a new arms race developed among the victorious Allies. The Washington Naval Treaty was only partly able to put an end to the race. Prior to WWI, a dreadnought arms race also took place in South America.

[edit]Nuclear arms race

nuclear arms race developed during the Cold War, a period of high tension between the Soviet Union and the United States. On both sides, perceived advantages of the adversary (such as the "missile gap") led to large spending on armaments and the stockpiling of vast nuclear arsenals. Proxy wars were fought all over the world (e.g. in the Middle EastKoreaVietnam) in which the superpowers' conventional weapons were pitted against each other. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, tensions decreased and the nuclear arsenal of both countries were reduced.

[edit]Greco-Turkish arms race

Greece and Turkey are engaged in a regional cold war, and have been for many decades. The arms race has been the subject of many scholarly books[citation needed] and is often cited as a threat and possible undoing of the entire NATO alliance[citation needed], should two of its members go to war. The mutual distrust and hatred has roots in antiquity with the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453, the Greek Revolution in 1821, the First Balkan War and the Greco-Turkish War of 1919-1922 following World War I (in which the two nations were enemies), and the Smyrna (Izmir) massacre. The 1955 Istanbul pogrom in which Istanbul's (formally Constantinople) Greek population of 250,000 was brutally diminished to around 3,000 today by Turkish government-sanctioned[citation needed] mob attacks, the Cyprus disputethroughout the 1950s and 1960s in which Greece aimed to annex the large island due to its overwhelming Greek population, which was attempted in 1974 and led to the Turkish invasion of that same year. The Cyprus dispute is an ongoing source of tension, with its capital ofNicosia divided by U.N. peace keeping efforts to this day. It is the last divided capital in Europe after the fall of the Berlin Wall. There is also tension between the two NATO allies over the treatment of their respective Christian and Muslim minorities, the treatment of the ancientGreek Orthodox Patriarchate and the maritime borders and continental shelf. Most weapons are procured from the United States, but also Germany, France, Russia and the U.K. among others. Tensions were heightened in 1997 during the Cyprus Missile Crisis when the Cypriot military attempted to install the advanced, Russian-made, S-300 missile defense system in Cyprus. Turkey threatened war[citation needed] if the missiles were deployed, so the Cypriot government eventually agreed to transfer the S-300s to the island of Crete.

[edit]Other uses

More generically, the term "arms race" is used to describe any competition where there is no absolute goal, only the relative goal of staying ahead of the other competitors in rank or knowledge. An arms race may also imply futility as the competitors spend a great deal of time and money, yet end up in the same situation as if they had never started the arms race.
An evolutionary arms race is a system where two populations are evolving in order to continuously one-up members of the other population.
This is related to the Red Queen effect, where two populations are co-evolving to overcome each other but are failing to make absolute progress.
In technology, there are close analogues to the arms races between parasites and hosts, such as the arms race between computer viruswriters and antivirus software writers, or spammers against Internet service providers and E-mail software writers.

[edit]See also

[edit]Literature

  • Richard J. Barnet: Der amerikanische Rüstungswahn. Rowohlt, Reinbek 1984, ISBN 3-499-11450-X (German)
  • Jürgen Bruhn: Der Kalte Krieg oder: Die Totrüstung der Sowjetunion. Focus, Gießen 1995, ISBN 3-88349-434-8 (German)

China & India: The new naval arms race
Zachary Fillingham - Oct 02, 09
Geopoliticalmonitor.com 
October 2, 2009
Summary

The near-constant media hype surrounding BRIC countries could lead some to think of them as a coherent international bloc devoid of internal divisions. Chinese efforts to create of a 'string of pearls'Chinese navy, engaged in new naval arms race with India around India's neck can serve as a reminder that this is not the case.
Analysis

The growth of Chinese military power over the past decade is underpinned by two major goals: re-unification with Taiwan and defending the supply chains needed for Chinese economic growth. Chinese efforts to secure energy imports - the most important of these supply chains - have had the consequence of projecting Chinese military power into the Indian Ocean. The result has been a burgeoning naval arms race with India.

The Chinese 'string of pearls' refers to the establishment of pressure points encircling India, assets that aren't strictly military in nature, but could be leveraged in the event of a future conflict. So far, the string is looking rather robust. It consists of: naval listening posts in Burma, new airbases and force deployments in Tibet and southern China, the construction of a deepwater port in Gwadar, Pakistan, and finally the construction of another port at Hambantota, Sri Lanka.

While the motivation behind the 'string of pearls' is less about viewing India as an important strategic competitor and more to do with securing energy supplies from the Middle East, it has triggered a naval arms race between two countries that already share a burden of history in the form of a hitherto unresolved border war.

India has responded to encroaching Chinese military power by re-orienting force deployments away from its traditional foe in Pakistan and towards China in the east.  Naval and air bases in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands south of Burma have been singled out for an ambitious renovation and expansion project. The proposed improvements include: a new nuclear submarine base, a Sukhoi airbase, an aircraft carrier base, and a dedicated nuclear power station. These bases are critical for India, as they are within striking distance of Burma's Kyaukpyu deep sea port, future home to the Burmese end of the Burma-China pipeline and consequently Chinese naval patrols as well.

Within India proper, New Delhi has been plucking Sukhoi divisions up from the west and re-deployed them in northern Assam, close to the Chinese border. The Indian government has also embarked on a charm offensive in the Maldives, signing several defense deals that will buttress Indian influence in this strategically located island chain.

Both India and China are undergoing massive naval modernization programs aimed at augmenting their naval projection capacity.

The PLA Navy has been digging into Beijing's $70-125 billion dollar defense budget to upgrade its fleet of around 72 combat ships. China's submarine fleet also continues to be expanded and modernized through a combination of foreign-made procurement and the construction of new Chinese models. 

It is now likely only a matter of time until the PLA Navy is outfitted with an aircraft carrier, a requirement if Beijing ever hopes to truly project military power into the Indian Ocean.

Not to be outdone, New Delhi is also pushing through a $100 billion naval modernization program. This program has already produced India's first indigenously-made nuclear sub, the INS Arihant, which was launched for trials earlier this month. The Indian government is mirroring China's emphasis on submarines and warships, as its plan calls for the construction of 25 submarines and an investment of over $15 billion into warships over the next ten years.

Unlike the Chinese however, India is already well on its way to producing a homegrown aircraft carrier. The first Vikrant class aircraft carrier should be ready by 2016.

That Indian and Chinese forces are being deployed opposite each other is a troubling development, especially when the issue of the Indian-Chinese border is taken into account. According to the Center of Policy Research in New Delhi, there were 280 Chinese incursions across the border near Ladakh in 2008. The Indian government has responded by building up military infrastructure and deployments in the area.

While China and India struggle to one-up each other in terms of military might, energy supplies and forward bases, their unresolved border dispute may just end up being the catalyst for a crisis that's waiting to happen.
2012 World Hunger and Poverty Facts and Statistics
World Hunger Education Service
This fact sheet is divided into the following sections:
Hunger is a term which has three meanings (Oxford English Dictionary 1971)
  • the uneasy or painful sensation caused by want of food; craving appetite. Also the exhausted condition caused by want of food
  • the want or scarcity of food in a country
  • a strong desire or craving
World hunger refers to the second definition, aggregated to the world level. The related technical term (in this case operationalized in medicine)  is malnutrition.1 
Malnutrition is a general term that indicates a lack of some or all nutritional elements necessary for human health (Medline Plus Medical Encyclopedia).
There are two basic types of malnutrition. The first and most important is protein-energy malnutrition--the lack of enough protein (from meat and other sources) and food that provides energy (measured in calories) which all of the basic food groups provide. This is the type of malnutrition that is referred to when world hunger is discussed.  The second type of malnutrition, also very important, is micronutrient (vitamin and mineral) deficiency. This is not the type of malnutrition that is referred to when world hunger is discussed, though it is certainly very important. 
[Recently there has also been a move to include obesity as a third form of malnutrition. Considering obesity as malnutrition expands the previous usual meaning of the term which referred to poor nutrition due to lack of food inputs.2 It is poor nutrition, but it is certainly not typically due to a lack of calories, but rather too many (although poor food choices, often due to poverty, are part of the problem). Obesity will not be considered here, although obesity is certainly a health problem and is increasingly considered as a type of malnutrition.]
Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is the most lethal form of malnutrition/hunger. It is basically a lack of calories and protein. Food is converted into energy by humans, and the energy contained in food is measured by calories.  Protein is necessary for key body functions including provision of essential amino acids and  development and maintenance of muscles.
925 million hungry people in 2010
No one really knows how many people are malnourished. The statistic most frequently cited is that of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, which measures 'undernutrition'.  The FAO did not publish an estimate in its most recent publication, 'The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2011' as it is undertaking a major revision of  how it estimates food insecurity (FAO 2011 p. 10).  The 2010 estimate, the most recent, says that 925 million people were undernourished in 2010 (FAO 2010). As the figure below shows, the number of hungry people has increased since 1995-97.. The increase has been due to three factors: 1) neglect of agriculture relevant to very poor people by governments and international agencies; 2) the current worldwide economic crisis, and 3) the significant increase of food prices in the last several years which has been devastating to those with only a few dollars a day to spend. 925 million people is 13.6 percent of the estimated world population of 6.8 billion. Nearly all of the undernourished are in developing countries. 
Number of hungry people, 1969-2010

Source: FAO
In round numbers there are 7 billion people in the world. Thus, with an estimated 925 million hungry people in the world, 13.1 percent, or almost 1 in 7 people are hungry.
The FAO estimate is based on statistical aggregates. The FAO first estimates the total food supply of a country and derives the average per capita daily food intake from that. The distribution of average food intake for people in the country is then estimated from surveys measuring food expenditure. Using this information, and minimum food energy requirements, FAO estimates how many people are likely to receive such a low level of food intake that they are undernourished.3
Undernutrition is a relatively new concept, but is increasingly used.  It should be taken as similar to malnutrition.  (It should be said as an aside, that the idea of undernourishment, its relationship to malnutrition, and the reasons for its emergence as a concept is not clear to Hunger Notes.)
Children are the most visible victims of undernutrition.  Children who are poorly nourished suffer up to 160 days of illness each year. Poor nutrition plays a role in at least half of the 10.9 million child deaths each year--five million deaths.  Undernutrition magnifies the effect of every disease, including measles and malaria. The estimated proportions of deaths in which undernutrition is an underlying cause are roughly similar for diarrhea (61%), malaria (57%), pneumonia (52%), and measles (45%) (Black 2003, Bryce 2005). Malnutrition can also be caused by diseases, such as the diseases that cause diarrhea, by reducing the body's ability to convert food into usable nutrients.
According to the most recent estimate that Hunger Notes could find, malnutrition, as measured by stunting, affects 32.5 percent of children in developing countries--one of three (de Onis 2000). Geographically, more than 70 percent of malnourished children live in Asia, 26 percent in Africa and 4 percent in Latin America and the Caribbean. In many cases, their plight began even before birth with a malnourished mother. Under-nutrition among pregnant women in developing countries leads to 1 out of 6 infants born with low birth weight. This is not only a risk factor for neonatal deaths, but also causes learning disabilities, mental, retardation, poor health, blindness and premature death.
The world produces enough food to feed everyone. World agriculture produces 17 percent more calories per person today than it did 30 years ago, despite a 70 percent population increase. This is enough to provide everyone in the world with at least 2,720 kilocalories (kcal) per person per day  according to the most recent estimate that we could find.(FAO 2002, p.9).  The principal problem is that many people in the world do not have sufficient land to grow, or income to purchase, enough food. 
What are the causes of hunger is a fundamental question, with varied answers. 
Poverty is the principal cause of hunger. The causes of poverty include poor people's lack of resources, an extremely unequal income distribution in the world and within specific countries, conflict, and hunger itself. As of 2008 (2005 statistics), the World Bank has estimated that there were an estimated 1,345 million poor people in developing countries who live on $1.25 a day or less.3 This compares to the later FAO estimate of  1.02 billion undernourished people.  Extreme poverty remains an alarming problem in the world's developing regions, despite some progress that reduced "dollar--now $1.25-- a day" poverty from (an estimated) 1900 million people in 1981, a reduction of 29 percent over the period. Progress in poverty reduction has been concentrated in Asia, and especially, East Asia, with the major improvement occurring in China. In Sub-Saharan Africa, the number of people in extreme poverty has increased.  The statement that 'poverty is the principal cause of hunger'  is, though correct, unsatisfying.  Why then are (so many) people poor?  The next section summarizes Hunger Notes  answer.
Harmful economic systems are the principal cause of poverty and hunger. Hunger Notes believes that the principal underlying cause of poverty and hunger is the ordinary operation of the economic and political systems in the world. Essentially control over resources and income is based on military, political and economic power that typically ends up in the hands of a minority, who live well, while those at the bottom barely survive, if they do. We have described the operation of this system in more detail in our special section onHarmful economic systems
Conflict as a cause of hunger and poverty. At the end of 2005, the global number of refugees was at its lowest level in almost a quarter of a century. Despite some large-scale repatriation movements, the last three years have witnessed a significant increase in refugee numbers, due primarily to the violence taking place in Iraq and Somalia. By the end of 2008, the total number of refugees under UNHCR's mandate exceeded 10 million. The number of conflict-induced internally displaced persons (IDPs) reached some 26 million worldwide at the end of the year . Providing exact figures on the number of stateless people is extremely difficult  But, important, (relatively) visible though it is, and anguishing for those involved conflict is less important as poverty (and its causes) as a cause of hunger. (Using the statistics above 1.02 billion people suffer from chronic hunger while 36 million people are displaced [UNHCR 2008])
Hunger is also a cause of poverty, and thus of hunger. By causing poor health, low levels of energy, and even mental impairment, hunger can lead to even greater poverty by reducing people's ability to work and learn, thus leading to even greater hunger. 
Climate change Climate change is increasingly viewed as a current and future cause of hunger and poverty. Increasing drought, flooding, and changing climatic patterns requiring a shift in crops and farming practices that may not be easily accomplished are three key issues.  See the Hunger Notes special report:  Hunger, the environment, and climate change for further information, especially articles in the section: Climate change, global warming and the effect on poor people such as Global warming causes 300,000 deaths a year, study says and Could food shortages bring down civilization?
The target set at the 1996 World Food Summit was to halve the number of undernourished people by 2015 from their number in 1990-92. (FAO uses three year averages in its calculation of undernourished people.) The (estimated) number of undernourished people in developing countries  was 824 million in 1990-92. In 2010, the number had climbed to 925 million people.  The WFS goal is a global goal adopted by the nations of the world; the present outcome indicates how marginal the efforts were in face of the real need.
So, overall,  the world is not making progress toward the world food summit goal, although there has been progress in Asia, and in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Quite a few  trace elements or micronutrients--vitamins and minerals--are important for health. 1 out of 3 people in developing countries are affected by vitamin and mineral deficiencies, according to the World Health Organization. Three, perhaps the most important in terms of health consequences for poor people in developing countries, are:
Vitamin A Vitamin A deficiency  can cause night blindness and reduces the body's resistance to disease. In children Vitamin A deficiency can also cause growth retardation. Between 100 and 140 million children are vitamin A deficient. An estimated 250,000 to 500 000 vitamin A-deficient children become blind every year, half of them dying within 12 months of losing their sight. (World Health Organization)
Iron Iron deficiency is a principal cause of anemia. Two billion people—over 30 percent of the world's populationare anemic, mainly due to iron deficiency, and, in developing countries, frequently exacerbated by malaria and worm infections. For children, health consequences include premature birth, low birth weight, infections, and elevated risk of death. Later, physical and cognitive development are impaired, resulting in lowered school performance. For pregnant women, anemia contributes to 20 percent of all maternal deaths (World Health Organization).
Iodine Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) jeopardize children´s mental health– often their very lives. Serious iodine deficiency during pregnancy may result in stillbirths, abortions and congenital abnormalities such as cretinism, a grave, irreversible form of mental retardation that affects people living in iodine-deficient areas of Africa and Asia. IDD also causes mental impairment that lowers intellectual prowess at home, at school, and at work. IDD affects over 740 million people, 13 percent of the world's population. Fifty million people have some degree of mental impairment caused by IDD (World Health Organization).
(Updated December 4,  2011)
1. The relation between hunger, malnutrition, and other terms such as undernutrition is not 'perfectly clear,' so we have attempted to spell them out briefly in "World Hunger Facts."
2. For example, the Oxford English Dictionary (1971 edition) has 'insufficient nutrition' as the only meaning for malnutrition.
3. For  discussions of measuring hunger see Califero 2011,  Headey 2011 and Masset, in press. 
4. The table  used to calculate this number.
Region % in  $1.25 a day povertyPopulation (millions)Pop. in $1 a day poverty (millions)
East Asia and Pacific 16.81,884316
Latin America and the Caribbean  8.255045
South Asia40.4 1,476596
Sub-Saharan Africa50.9763388
  Total Developing countries28,8 46731345
Europe and Central Asia0.0447317
Middle East and North Africa0.0430511
Total 54511372
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Jennifer Bryce, Cynthia Boschi-Pinto, Kenji Shibuya, Robert E. Black, and the WHO Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group. 2005. "WHO estimates of the causes of death in children." Lancet ; 365: 1147–52.
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Headey, Derek. 2011. "Was the Global Food Crisis Really a Crisis? Simulations versus Self-Reporting", IFPRI Discussion Paper 01087.  
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UNHCR 2008 Global Report 2008 "The Year in Review"http://www.unhcr.org/4a2d0b1d2.pdf


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