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Tuesday, 10 January 2012

Youngistan in Hazards!I am sorry to say tha we the Parents to fail to understand how hazardous has become the life of our young children!


Youngistan in Hazards!I am sorry to say tha we the Parents to fail to understand how hazardous has become the life of our young children!


Indian Holocaust My Father`s Life and

Time - SEVEN HUNDRED SEVENTY NINE

Palash Biswas

http://indianholocaustmyfatherslifeandtime.blogspot.com/

http://basantipurtimes.blogspot.com/


Youngistan in Hazards!

I am sorry to say tha we the Parents to fail to understand how hazardous has become the life of our young children!

It is NOt like our Childhood days which was quite slower, peaceful and Riskfree.We have to bear with them all the hazards. We have to share their experiences adjusting with their technical, socially networked supersonic careless lifestyle and Inject some positive Objectives in their life quite friendly accomodating their mindset. it is NOt easy as we ourselves suffer from Identity crisis, our children really never do knw who they are! Hence they have a Blind Aimless Carefree Youngistan in the Virtual world which is more Hazardous than our Imagination!

Last night, as usal, I was busy with my PC in the Office away from Home on the Delhi Mumbai Highway in Ankurhati in Howrah district. It was peak hour. Suddenly, sabita Called me on my Cell Number 09903717833. it was an emergency. She landed in the ZENITH Hospital in Belgharia on BT Road. Ronnie, the only son of our Doctor Friend Ajitda met an Accident playing Table Tennis in Indian Stastical Institute, Kolkata. He lost Three Teeth and had huge Bleeding causing Pressure subsidence. His mother Ananaya, the Next door friend of Sabita was suffering from High Fever since Morning and sabita had to do all the works in her kitchen. Ronnie left for the hostel late afternoon. He was quite Cheerful as he was at home away from his Bagaluru Engineering College.He had been at ISI studying Mathematics earlier. Returning home, he always gets back to the old hostel.

We have the experience as some years back, in a Diwali Midnight, our only Son Excalibur Stevens TUSSU was struck by a speedy motorbike on BT Road in Khardah in 2004, October. Me and sabita had to pick up him from the Highway and get him admitted in the Hospital. He was lucky enough NOt to be RUN Over by another speedy vehicle on the busy highway.It was a Horribel experience. Sabita had always been very cool as she underwent Open heart Surgery in 1995 as she had a Tumour right into the heart. no one else but Dr Devy Shetty did the Operation. It was a rarest maong rare cases. it was alos the only successful Surgery in such a case in Kolkata. We was shocked but since me and Sabita brought up Tussu alone since he was born at sushila Jaswant Hospital in Meerut on 3rd September, 1985. sabita had already undergone no less than Three surgeries before that. I was always on Night Duty. Media was all Manual affair in those days and I had to return home after releasing late City edition and we had to cover every news , mind you. It was not Entertainment and Fashion in those days. sabita was school teacher who had to attend her school in Morning hours. Tussu had been often INDISPOSED! oFTEN, WE HAD TO RUN   TO NEAREST hOSPITAL OR nURSING hOME late in Mid Night.

But Ronnie`s Parents were quite shaky. The lady, already indisposed, fgot Unconsious at Zenith as Ronnie was admitted in ICU.

I am sharing this with you as we meet such incidents daily somewhere or elsewhere. The Children are living a Risky life. They are Overloaded with Uncertain Future and fluctuating Career with ever expanding Friend Circle, Virtual world and social Networking. we have got too involved to sustain the Family against Price rise, Inflation, Job and livelihood insecurity and strains unwanted as we remain outside of the Economy Excluded and deserted as the State has ceased to be Welfare Stae and we have to Purchase the Basic servces like Ecucation and Health which most of us May Not afford. The Children are basically deprived of the services which we enjoyed quite Free during our childhood.The Survival kit is quie Heavier as the Schoolbags are. The appliances include Bikes, four wheelers, Cell Phones, I  Phones, Lap Tops and so on. Often the children remain Disconected from the Parenst day after day, months after months and years after year in Single Unit families as well as in Joint Families. they depend on the Virtual eworld, Social Networking, Friend Circles and even drugs. We are quite separated, alienated.It never happened in our days. we had the feel of the Joint family in Rural as well as urban society. We always found the Society around us. We never felt Alone or Helpless. Ther had been alaways a helping and caring hand behind us. our children have lostb that caring, helping hand and they have indulged in Busier activities to engage themselves and they seek Help from unwanted quarters.

I have to return late in the night by office car and watch the Teenagers driving so fast and so blind as they do Never care for Life and Death quite unaware of the Caring worrying parents or family. Free Economy has changed us quite a bit. Free Economy has equipped some of us with DSuperfast Life Style kits in vogue, but Free Consumerist Life has made us Animals  living on impulses and instincts.

I Never balme the children for the life they inherited from us. It is the biometric, genetic defects they inherit from us.Our parenst did educate us to make us Civilised. But we are working like corporates andMNCs who just invest for returns, benefits.
It is NOT liability or responsibility for us anymore as we have lost the Values. We are a deculturilised degenereted Parents generation who never know how to confide with the gfrowing children or simply how to bring up the children. We are just Investing for a Better Purchasing power, a super Consumer life! The disease is INFLICTED by us only. We created the Virtual Advertised entertaining Youngistan!

We may boast that we were responsible, socially awakened, concerned and connected children who behaved very well. How did we fail then as parnts?

In sevnties and eigties, Youngistan Never did exist. But the younger people wer more concerned and more Active as they Never did feel the pangs of uncertain Future. In the hills, we Never did worry about our future career befor we graduated. We were socially concerned even after Post Graduation.But the Youngistan is quite confused what to do with their life as false multidimensional avenues, which were Absent in our days and the overwhelming Virtual world mislead tehm to decide upon future course of life. This grand Confusion lands them into a Shakespearean Dilemma, TO BE OR NOT TO BE! They have NO time for the Societ as they are overindulged with the Darkest Future ever and the Knowledge Economy has destroyed their Objectives whatsover.

Friends let us think and try toresolve this problem as earlier as as paossible. It is greater problem tahn any of the Problems facing the Nation or the Economy!
  1. Images for Rave Parties India

  2. What is a rave party? : India News - India Today

  3. indiatoday.intoday.in/story/what-is-a-rave-party/1/142862.html
  4. 27 Jun 2011 – A rave is an electronic music dance party that lasts all night. It can feature performances from DJs or live music performers along with rampant ...
  5. Freak rave party- The Times of India Photogallery

  6. View Freak rave partyPics on TOI Photogallery. ... The Times of India | The Economic Times |. More. More ... Most commented in Parties ...
  7. Hot Rave Party MMS in Mumbai - Video

  8. *
  9. www.metacafe.com/.../hot_rave_party_mms_in_mum...12 Apr 2010 - 2 min
  10. Sexiest Indian Hot Party 01:37. Sexiest Indian Hot Party. 21502 Views. By Desimad · Juhu Rave Party Mms 01 ...
  11. Hottest Indian party - YouTube

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  13. www.youtube.com/watch?v=dGPWLrVJ0vE19 Dec 2009 - 2 min - Uploaded by dirtycameraman
  14. dirtycameraman :- last night i went to a rave party which was the hottest indian party ever seen. There was ...
  15. Rave Parties in Goa, Goa India Rave Parties, Nightlife in ... - Surfindia

  16. Enjoy the parties of goa, which has a unique goan music, called Goan Trance, Delicious Goan cuisine, famous local wine called Fenny, and an aura, which is ...
  17. Mumbai Rave Party | Drugs Cocain Found | Indian Youth | Anti ...

  18. news.oneindia.in/.../indian-youth-drug-addicted-mumbai-rave-party-...
  19. 28 Jun 2011 – A Rave party in Mumbai on the anti-narcotics day revealed that Indianyouths are obsessed with drugs which were found in huge amount in the ...
  20. Hot Rave Party MMS - leaked footage part 2 | Video | Gossip-News ...

  21. videos.oneindia.in/.../hot-rave-party-mms-leaked-footage-part-2.html
  22. 4 days ago – After the gr8 response to my video part 1 here comes the extra hot part 2 Enjoyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyy.
  23. Mumbai: Inspector arrested in rave party raid - India News - IBNLive

  24. ibnlive.in.com/news/rave-party-busted-in...300.../162881-3.html
  25. 27 Jun 2011 – A rave party in the Raigad district near Mumbai was busted by the police late on Sunday night where about 300 people were rounded up.
  26. Hellish 7th heaven: Rave Parties Trending Across Young India ...

  27. 7 Sep 2011 – In India, Goa was the first to receive the rave party culture introduced by the Hippies. The nightlife of Goa is a major attraction for tourists and the ...
  28. Rave party busted, narcotics officer becomes suspect

  29. 27 Jun 2011 – It was 9:30 pm on Sunday night and the music was pumping in the Mount View resort in Karjat, a two and a half hour drive from Mumbai.
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1



 Deculturalization refers to the "stripping away of a people's culture and replacing it with a new culture" (Spring 1). Deculturalization is one of the most inhumane acts one can partake in. A person's culture is his/her main defining feature. Culture is the medium through which people communicate their beliefs, values, and morals. Inserting one's own culture in place of someone's pre-existing culture is the basis of ethnocentrism. People have repeatedly become victims of deculturalization, especially in the United States, and by analyzing this ethnocentrism one learns the importance of sustaining different cultures in society.
    There are many methods of deculturalization, such as segregation, isolation, and forced change of language. When the content of curriculum reflects culture of dominant group, it is deculturalization. Also, dominated groups are not allowed to express their culture and religion, which is deculturalization. Use of teachers from the dominant group to teach those that are dominated is another form of deculturalization (Spring 49).
    "The problem was the assumption that U.S. institutions, customs, and beliefs
    were the best in the world and they should be imposed" (Spring 42).
    Throughout much of the past century, the United States sought to stamp its cultural ideal upon almost...


... middle of paper ...


...t engulfed Anglo Americans.
    Deculturalization has been a very sad occurrence since the beginning of America, and only recently has this problem started to be alleviated. The impacts of deculturalization have been very negative on society, but mostly on the education system. Today, teacher education revolves around multiculturalism and valuing the differences in cultures. Until this idea reaches all realms of society, however, the United States will not be completely free from the negative aspects of deculturalization, which swept through the country for many years. Knowledge is half the battle, though, and the more people are educated on other cultures, the more people will begin to appreciate other cultures.

Sociology of education

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The sociology of education is the study of how public institutions and individual experiences affecteducation and its outcomes. It is most concerned with the public schooling systems of modern industrial societies, including the expansion of higher, further, adult, and continuing education.[1]
Education has often been seen as a fundamentally optimistic human endeavour characterised byaspirations for progress and betterment.[2] It is understood by many to be a means of overcoming handicaps, achieving greater equality and acquiring wealth and social status.[3] Education is perceived as a place where children can develop according to their unique needs and potential.[2] It is also perceived as one of the best means of achieving greater social equality.[3] Many would say that the purpose of education should be to develop every individual to their full potential and give them a chance to achieve as much in life as their natural abilities allow (meritocracy). Few would argue that any education system accomplishes this goal perfectly. Some take a particularly negative view, arguing that the education system is designed with the intention of causing the social reproduction of inequality.

[edit]History

A systematic sociology of education began with Émile Durkheim's work on moral education as a basis for organic solidarity and that by Max Weber, on the Chinese literati as an instrument of political control. It was after World War II, however, that the subject received renewed interest around the world: from technological functionalism in the US, egalitarian reform of opportunity in Europe, and human-capital theory in economics. These all implied that, with industrialization, the need for a technologically-skilled labour force undermines class distinctions and other ascriptive systems of stratification, and that education promotes social mobility. However, statistical and field research across numerous societies showed a persistent link between an individual's social class and achievement, and suggested that education could only achieve limited social mobility.[1] Sociological studies showed how schooling patterns reflected, rather than challenged, class stratification and racial and sexual discrimination.[1] After the general collapse of functionalism from the late 1960s onwards, the idea of education as an unmitigated good was even more profoundly challenged. Neo-Marxists argued that school education simply produced a docile labour-force essential to late-capitalist class relations.

[edit]Theoretical perspectives

The sociology of education contains a number of theories. Some of the main theories are presented below.

[edit]Political Arithmetic

The Political Arithmetic tradition within the sociology of education began with Hogben (1938)[4] and denotes a tradition of politically critical quantitative research dealing with social inequalities, especially those generated by social stratification (Heath 2000).[5] Important works in this tradition have been (Glass 1954),[6] (Floud, et al. 1956)[7] and (Halsey, et al. 1980).[8] All of these works were concerned with the way in which school structures were implicated in social class inequalities in Britain. More recent work in this tradition has broadened its focus to include gender,[9][10] ethnic differentials [11] and international differences.[12] While researchers in this tradition have engaged with sociological theories such as Rational Choice Theory [13] and Cultural Reproduction Theory,[14] the political arithmetic tradition has tended to remain rather sceptical of 'grand theory' and very much concerned with empirical evidence and social policy. The political arithmetic tradition was attacked by the 'New Sociology of Education' of the 1970s [15] which rejected quantitative research methods. This heralded a period of methodological division within the sociology of education. However, the political arithmetic tradition, while rooted in quantitative methods, has increasingly engaged with mixed methods approaches [16]

[edit]Structural functionalism

Structural functionalists believe that society leans towards equilibrium and social order. They see society like a human body, in which institutions such as education are like important organs that keep the society/body healthy and well.[17] Social health means the same as social order, and is guaranteed when nearly everyone accepts the general moral values of their society. Hence structural functionalists believe the aim of key institutions, such as education, is to socialise children and teenagers. Socialization is the process by which the new generation learns the knowledge, attitudes and values that they will need as productive citizens. Although this aim is stated in the formal curriculum,[18] it is mainly achieved through "the hidden curriculum",[19] a subtler, but nonetheless powerful, indoctrination of the norms and values of the wider society. Students learn these values because their behaviour at school is regulated (Durkheim in [3]) until they gradually internalise and accept them. Education must, however perform another function. As various jobs become vacant, they must be filled with the appropriate people. Therefore the other purpose of education is to sort and rank individuals for placement in the labour market [Munro, 1997]. Those with high achievement will be trained for the most important jobs and in reward, be given the highest incomes. Those who achieve the least, will be given the least demanding (intellectually at any rate, if not physically) jobs, and hence the least income.
According to Sennet and Cobb however, "to believe that ability alone decides who is rewarded is to be deceived".[3] Meighan agrees, stating that large numbers of capable students from working class backgrounds fail to achieve satisfactory standards in school and therefore fail to obtain the status they deserve.[20] Jacob believes this is because the middle class cultural experiences that are provided at school may be contrary to the experiences working-class children receive at home.[21] In other words, working class children are not adequately prepared to cope at school. They are therefore "cooled out"[22] from school with the least qualifications, hence they get the least desirable jobs, and so remain working class. Sargent confirms this cycle, arguing that schooling supports continuity, which in turn supports social order.[3] Talcott Parsons believed that this process, whereby some students were identified and labelled educational failures, "was a necessary activity which one part of the social system, education, performed for the whole".[20] Yet the structural functionalist perspective maintains that this social order, this continuity, is what most people desire.[17] The weakness of this perspective thus becomes evident.[citation needed] Why would the working class wish to stay working class? Such an inconsistency demonstrates that another perspective may be useful.

[edit]Education and social reproduction

The perspective of conflict theory, contrary to the structural functionalist perspective, believes that society is full of vying social groups with different aspirations, different access to life chances and gain different social rewards.[23] Relations in society, in this view, are mainly based on exploitation, oppression, domination and subordination.[3][24] Many teachers assume that students will have particular middle class experiences at home, and for some children this assumption isn't necessarily true.[21] Some children are expected to help their parents after school and carry considerable domestic responsibilities in their often single-parent home.[25] The demands of this domestic labour often make it difficult for them to find time to do all their homework and thus affects their academic performance.
Where teachers have softened the formality of regular study and integrated student's preferred working methods into the curriculum, they noted that particular students displayed strengths they had not been aware of before.[25] However few teachers deviate from the traditionalcurriculum, and the curriculum conveys what constitutes knowledge as determined by the state - and those in power [Young in [3]]. This knowledge isn't very meaningful to many of the students, who see it as pointless.[21] Wilson & Wyn state that the students realise there is little or no direct link between the subjects they are doing and their perceived future in the labour market.[25] Anti-school values displayed by these children are often derived from their consciousness of their real interests. Sargent believes that for working class students, striving to succeed and absorbing the school's middle class values, is accepting their inferior social position as much as if they were determined to fail.[3] Fitzgerald states that "irrespective of their academic ability or desire to learn, students from poor families have relatively little chance of securing success".[26] On the other hand, for middle and especially upper-class children, maintaining their superior position in society requires little effort. The federal government subsidises 'independent' private schools enabling the rich to obtain 'good education' by paying for it.[3] With this 'good education', rich children perform better, achieve higher and obtain greater rewards. In this way, the continuation of privilege and wealth for the elite is made possible.
Conflict theorists believe this social reproduction continues to occur because the whole education system is overlain with ideology provided by the dominant group. In effect, they perpetuate the myth that education is available to all to provide a means of achieving wealth and status. Anyone who fails to achieve this goal, according to the myth, has only themself to blame.[3] Wright agrees, stating that "the effect of the myth is to…stop them from seeing that their personal troubles are part of major social issues".[3] The duplicity is so successful that many parents endure appalling jobs for many years, believing that this sacrifice will enable their children to have opportunities in life that they did not have themselves.[25] These people who are poor and disadvantaged are victims of a societal confidence trick. They have been encouraged to believe that a major goal of schooling is to strengthen equality while, in reality, schools reflect society's intention to maintain the previous unequal distribution of status and power [Fitzgerald, cited in [3]].
This perspective has been criticised[citation needed] as deterministic and pessimistic.
It should be recognised however that it is a model, an aspect of reality which is an important part of the picture.

[edit]Structure and agency

[edit]Bourdieu and cultural capital

This theory of social reproduction has been significantly theorised by Pierre Bourdieu. However Bourdieu as a social theorist has always been concerned with the dichotomy between the objective and subjective, or to put it another way, between structure and agency. Bourdieu has therefore built his theoretical framework around the important concepts of habitus, field and cultural capital. These concepts are based on the idea that objective structures determine individuals' chances, through the mechanism of the habitus, where individuals internalise these structures. However, the habitus is also formed by, for example, an individual's position in various fields, their family and their everyday experiences. Therefore one's class position does not determine one's life chances, although it does play an important part, alongside other factors.
Bourdieu used the idea of cultural capital to explore the differences in outcomes for students from different classes in the French educational system. He explored the tension between the conservative reproduction and the innovative production of knowledge and experience.[27] He found that this tension is intensified by considerations of which particular cultural past and present is to be conserved and reproduced in schools. Bourdieu argues that it is the culture of the dominant groups, and therefore their cultural capital, which is embodied in schools, and that this leads to social reproduction.[27]
The cultural capital of the dominant group, in the form of practices and relation to culture, is assumed by the school to be the natural and only proper type of cultural capital and is therefore legitimated. It demands "uniformly of all its students that they should have what it does not give" [Bourdieu [28]]. This legitimate cultural capital allows students who possess it to gain educational capital in the form of qualifications. Those lower-class students are therefore disadvantaged. To gain qualifications they must acquire legitimate cultural capital, by exchanging their own (usually working-class) cultural capital.[29] This exchange is not a straight forward one, due to the class ethos of the lower-class students. Class ethos is described as the particular dispositions towards, and subjective expectations of, school and culture. It is in part determined by the objective chances of that class.[30] This means that not only do children find success harder in school due to the fact that they must learn a new way of 'being', or relating to the world, and especially, a new way of relating to and using language, but they must also act against their instincts and expectations. The subjective expectations influenced by the objective structures found in the school, perpetuate social reproduction by encouraging less-privileged students to eliminate themselves from the system, so that fewer and fewer are to be found as one journeys through the levels of the system. The process of social reproduction is neither perfect nor complete,[27] but still, only a small number of less-privileged students achieve success. For the majority of these students who do succeed at school, they have had to internalise the values of the dominant classes and use them as their own, to the detriment of their original habitus and cultural values.
Therefore Bourdieu's perspective reveals how objective structures play an important role in determining individual achievement in school, but allows for the exercise of an individual's agency to overcome these barriers, although this choice is not without its penalties.

[edit]Educational sociologists around the world

[edit]Asia


[edit]Europe


[edit]North America


[edit]Australia

  • Raewyn Connell (creator of 'southern theory')
  • Karl Maton (creator of 'Legitimation Code Theory')

[edit]Russia


[edit]References

  1. ^ a b c Gordon Marshall (ed) A Dictionary of Sociology (Article: Sociology of Education), Oxford University Press, 1998
  2. ^ a b Schofield, K. (1999). The Purposes of Education, Queensland State Education: 2010 Accessed 2002, Oct 28.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Sargent, M. (1994) The New Sociology for Australians (3rd Ed), Longman Chesire, Melbourne
  4. ^ Hogben, L. (1938) Political Arithmetic: a symposium of population studies, London: Allen & Unwin.
  5. ^ Heath, A. (2000) The Political Arithmetic Tradition in the Sociology of Education, Oxford Review of Education 26(3-4): 313-331.
  6. ^ Glass, D. V. (1954) Social Mobility in Britain, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  7. ^ Floud, J., Halsey, A. H. and Martin, F. (1956) Social class and educational opportunity: Heinemann.
  8. ^ Halsey, A. H., Heath, A. F. and Ridge, J. M. (1980) Origins and destinations : family, class, and education in modern Britain, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  9. ^ Gorard, S., Salisbury, J. and Rees, G. (1999) Reappraising the apparent underachievement of boys at school, Gender and Education 11(4): 441-454.
  10. ^ Sullivan, A., Heath, A. F. and Rothon, C. (2011) Equalisation or inflation? Social class and gender differentials in England and Wales, Oxford Review of Education 37(2): 215-240.
  11. ^ Heath, A. F. and Cheung, S.-Y. (eds) (2007) Unequal Chances: ethnic minoroties in western labour markets, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  12. ^ Heath, A. F. and Sullivan, A. (2011) Introduction: The democratisation of upper-secondary education?, Oxford Review of Education 37(2): 123-138.
  13. ^ Breen, R. and Goldthorpe, J. (1997) Explaining Educational Differentials: Towards a Rational Action Theory, Rationality and Society 9(3): 275-305.
  14. ^ Sullivan, A. (2001) Cultural Capital and Educational Attainment, Sociology 35(4): 893-912.
  15. ^ M. F. D. Young (ed) Knowledge and Control: New Directions for the Sociology of Education, London: Macmillan.
  16. ^ Ogg, T., Zimdars, A. and Heath, A. F. (2009) Schooling effects on degree performance: a comparison of the predictive validity of aptitude testing and secondary school grades at Oxford University, British Educational Research Journal 35(5): 781-807.
  17. ^ a b Bessant, J. and Watts, R. (2002) Sociology Australia (2nd ed), Allen & Unwin, Sydney
  18. ^ NSW Board of Studies, K-6 HSIE Syllabus (NSW Australia)
  19. ^ Harper, G. (1997) "Society, culture, socialisation and the individual" in Stafford, C. and Furze, B. (eds) Society and Change (2nd ed), Macmillan Education Australia, Melbourne
  20. ^ a b Meighan, R. & Siraj-Blatchford, I. (1997) A Sociology of Educating (3rd Ed), Cassell, London
  21. ^ a b c Jacob, A. (2001) Research links poverty and literacy, ABC Radio Transcript [1]
  22. ^ Foster, L. E. (1987) Australian Education: A Sociological Perspective(2nd Ed), Prentice Hall, Sydney
  23. ^ Furze, B. and Healy, P. (1997) "Understanding society and change" in Stafford, C. and Furze, B. (eds) Society and Change (2nd Ed), Macmillan Education Australia, Melbourne
  24. ^ Connell, R. W. and White, V., (1989) 'Child poverty and educational action' in Edgar, D., Keane, D. & McDonald, P. (eds), Child Poverty, Allen & Unwin, Sydney
  25. ^ a b c d Wilson, B. and Wyn, J. (1987) Shaping Futures: Youth Action for Livelihood, Allen & Unwin, Hong Kong
  26. ^ Henry, M., Knight, J., Lingard, R. and Taylor, S. (1988) Understanding Schooling: An Introductory Sociology of Australian Education, Routledge, Sydney
  27. ^ a b c Harker, R., (1990) "Education and Cultural Capital" in Harker, R., Mahar, C., & Wilkes, C., (eds) (1990) An Introduction to the Work of Pierre Bourdieu: the practice of theory, Macmillan Press, London
  28. ^ Swartz, D., "Pierre Bourdieu: The Cultural Transmission of Social Inequality" in Robbins, D., (2000) Pierre Bourdieu Volume II, Sage Publications, London, pp.207-217
  29. ^ Harker, R., (1984) "On Reproduction, Habitus and Education" in Robbins, D., (2000) Pierre Bourdieu Volume II, Sage Publications, London, pp.164-176
  30. ^ Gorder, K., (1980) "Understanding School Knowledge: a critical appraisal of Basil Bernstein and Pierre Bourdieu" in Robbins, D., (2000)Pierre Bourdieu Volume II, Sage Publications, London, pp.218-233

[edit]Further reading

  • Block, A.A., (1997) I'm only bleeding, Education as the Practice of Violence Against Children, Peter Lang, New York
  • Bourdieu, P., (1977) Outline of a Theory of Practice, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
  • Bourdieu, P., (1984) Distinction, a Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste, Harvard University Press, Cambridge
  • Bourdieu, P., (1986) "The Forms of Capital"
  • Bourdieu, P., (1990) Reproduction: In Education, Society and Culture, Sage Publications, London
  • Bourdieu, P., (1996) The State Nobility, Polity Press, Cambridge
  • Gabbard, D and Saltman, Ken (eds) (2003) Education as Enforcement: The Militarization and Corporatization of Schooling
  • Grenfell, M. (ed) (2008) Pierre Bourdieu: Key concepts, London, Acumen Press.
  • Harker, R., Mahar, C., & Wilkes, C., (eds) (1990) An Introduction to the Work of Pierre Bourdieu: the practice of theory, Macmillan Press, London
  • Lampert, K.,(2003) "Prolegomena for Radical Schooling", University Press of A, Marryland
  • Paulo Freire, (2000) Pedagogy of the Oppressed (3rd Ed), Continuum Press, New York
  • Schofield, K. (1999) "The Purposes of Education", in Queensland State Education: 2010 (Conference Papers)
  • Spring, J., (2000) Deculturalization and the struggle for Equality: A brief history of the education of dominant cultures in the U.S. McGraw Hill

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October 1995
Volume 13, Number 10
Capitalism and Culture
Llewellyn H. Rockwell, Jr.
From Left and Right, capitalism is condemned for all the cultural failings of the modern world--everything from mindless TV to dirty books to slatternly art to trashy movies to debasing music. It's an extension of the liberal habit of blaming a system for what are actually the failings of individuals.
Ludwig von Mises identified Victorian art critic John Ruskin as the intellectual source of this ceaseless griping. Ruskin saw civilization, embodied in the arts, as going down the tubes, and he labeled the market economy as the cause. This allowed him to be a socialist without surrendering upper-class affectations or having to prattle about workers and peasants.
Ruskin thus qualifies, said Mises, as "one of the gravediggers of British freedom, civilization and prosperity." "A wretched character in his private no less than in his public life," Ruskin eulogized the ancient producer cartels called guilds. "Government and cooperation are in all things the laws of life," wrote Ruskin in Unto This Last (1862), "anarchy and competition the laws of death."
Nowadays, practically everyone with a college degree is a tacit Ruskinian. Americans may understand the productive power of the market, but many are blind to its virtue as a civilizing agent, to its ability to sustain tradition, create what's beautiful and grand, and preserve what's right and good.
The Left (still essentially Marxian) wants us to think of capitalism as modern and industrial. More correctly, capitalism is just a name for the social recognition of private property, trade, and contract enforcement. It was as much a part of ancient Athens as 19th-century America. In its total absence, civilization would crumble, and the arts vanish.
In modern times, the confusion usually starts this way. Someone flips on the television to find the usual rotten show and offensive commercials. He concludes that's the market at work: base, vulgar, and insulting to our intelligence.
Once on this track, the anti-capitalist mentality runs wild. The decadence of the cash nexus appears everywhere. Strip malls and yellow M's in the sky. Boxing, moshing, tabloids, rap, and low pay for intellectuals. It's all horrible, sniffs this person, and it's all capitalism's fault.
If this theory were correct, the prophets, saints, and ancient philosophers were wasting their breath. They called on people to abandon sin and adopt virtue, when they could have taken the fast-track to social salvation by condemning free exchange and private property.
What the great moralists knew, and we've forgotten, is that people and cultures are products of human choice. Good lives can flourish in any social setting, whether the prison camp, the Wild West, or Washington, D.C. (hard as the latter is to believe).
Sin and stupidity will, of course, always be with us. From an economic perspective, our goal should be to make sure that sinners pay for their sins, and that minimal resources are used to cater to them. In this process, capitalism is our ally. In addition to making prosperity possible, the whole point of economics and markets is to make sure the minimum amount of resources is used to satisfy any particular demand of any particular group.
The free economy is efficient because it deals with tastes and preferences as a given, it organizes resources in an economically practical way, and it arranges for the consumer to get what he wants at the least possible cost to everyone else.
The junk on television may indeed speak volumes about our culture. People should care about more important things. Thanks to capitalism, however, society isn't wasting excess resources on it. Trash is delivered in the least costly manner, leaving more resources for the pursuit of what really matters.
Entrepreneurs have learned to provide services to even the smallest niche. When I see television, and I don't very often, the most intelligent network is EWTN. It features 50-part lectures by learned academics on subjects like Scholasticism.
This is a profitable enterprise that would be considered wasteful in a socialist country--not to mention politically incorrect. In a less prosperous society, it couldn't survive. Yet I can't remember anyone crediting capitalism for making St. Thomas Aquinas accessible to the masses.
It used to be said that government had to fund the arts for them to be of good quality. That argument no longer flies. Take a look at the malevolent and stupid creations of the National Endowment for Arts. The government's "sculptures," "architecture," and "music" has littered the country with rubbish.
Economists say that the market "internalizes externalities." This means, in part, that people who are offended by some goods and services can structure their lives to avoid exposure. That's mostly true, especially in the case of sleazy television and movies, pornography, and weird services like telephone sex. Thanks to capitalism--which restricts such services to the people who purchase them--the rest of us don't have to be affected.
A shop selling Satanic trinkets recently opened up in Auburn, Alabama. "Anything for a buck," people sneered, until the store went belly-up for lack of business. It's true that some people willdo anything for a buck, but in a market economy, they have to be subservient to the consuming public.
The market delivers plenty of similar good news, though most of it goes unremarked. Let's consider the case of big cities, which the productive public has been clawing its way out of for decades.
The government has done everything in its power to make cities uninhabitable by regular people. Government welfare has fostered a whole class of citizens that is at once indolent and criminal. Public housing and rental subsidies have destroyed settings that were once middle-class. Many cities today are only "cultural" centers if you like freaks and muggers.
Yet, thanks to capitalism, there is hope. Private individuals and developers take buildings that appear beyond repair and revive them. House by house, block by block, whole sections of cities have been gentrified. It's not charity work. Without a system of profit and loss, it wouldn't happen.
Yet you can't satisfy those with an anti-capitalist mentality. They invariably complain that gentrification raises property values and "squeezes" out the poor, while forgetting to notice how much better off everyone is when degraded resources are made more valuable.
Beach housing has long been a magnet for cultural complaints against capitalism. High-rise buildings were routinely called evil for destroying the view from a mile away. Yet it is this type of structure which makes beach-living possible for the masses in the first place.
Some architects, in revulsion against beach high rises, have worked with investors to buy miles of property on the beach. Then they create communities with quaint houses and shops. The result is magnificent, and entirely private, if affordable only for a few.
These architects think they're repudiating the tackiness of capitalism. They fail to realize that their private, planned communities are as much a part of capitalism as the high rises. Far from making a left-wing ideological point, they are catering to different tastes, marketing a product, and vastly increasing the value of property as a result. High rises and private communities represent capitalism at work.
Yet what about the materialism of capitalism? This too is a misnomer. Strictly speaking, capitalism is not about material goods; it's about exchangeable goods. Leisure, love, beauty, and art are all exchangeable, and as much a part of economic life as Big Macs and Seinfeld.
It's said that markets bring about short-term thinking. Quite the contrary. Markets often focus on the extreme long-term, in ways the government can never do. Consider the wine industry. It can take decades before a vineyard produces a really great bottle of wine. Even common table wines require that entrepreneurs plan many years in advance. The more forward-looking the capitalist, the more he can be rewarded for setting aside temporary pleasures.
Every good and service has a timetable, and the entrepreneur must plan in the most cost-effective manner. It's bureaucratic man--not the mythical economic man--who is prone to consumption and immediate gratification. And the more the state intervenes in an economy, the more it penalizes long-term thinking and rewards short-termism. Inflation is the most obvious example.
But hasn't the capitalist mentality forced everyone in the family to work sixty hours per week, just to keep up with material desires? In fact, it's the government that has brought it about. A conspiracy against sound money and private property is what drove wives and mothers into the workforce in the 1970s and 1980s. A return to unfettered capitalism would allow those who desired it to return home, so that we could restore family and community life. Both thrived under laissez-faire.
As Schumpeter noted, every socialist is an enemy of the bourgeois values of home, family, community, property, honesty, diligence, and hard work. The more socialist our economy becomes, the more vice displaces virtue in public and private life.
As for the culturally uplifting aspects of capitalism, the profit and loss system makes possible--to take just a few examples--our economy's amazing bounty of recorded classical music, the greatest cabernets in the world, an abundance of culinary treats even kings couldn't imagine two centuries ago, and some good movies. If that doesn't convince, consider that it's under capitalism that the Bible became the all-time best-selling book.
------------------------------------------
Llewellyn H. Rockwell. Jr. is president and founder of the Ludwig von Mises Institute
http://mises.org/freemarket_detail.aspx?control=220

The Free Market and the Culture of Victimization

—By Kevin Drum
| Wed May. 11, 2011 9:46 AM PDT

Here is American politics in a nutshell:
"I'm glad to see they're trying to rein in Fannie Mae, but I think I'm being disproportionately penalized," said Rayn Random, who is trying to sell her house in the hills for $849,000 so she can move to Florida.
Actually, that's probably everyone's politics in a nutshell. The issue here is that in 2008, after the collapse of the housing market, the federal government raised the limit for the size of the home loans that Fannie Mae would
But no matter how broadly supported a policy is, there's always somebody who's going to get the short end of the stick and is convinced they're being singled out for unfair treatment. In this case, it's upper middle class homeowners, who might have a bit harder time selling their homes and might have to pay a bit more when they're buying one. This is, of course, the free market in action, but no one in the housing industry cares about that when it's their paychecks on the line:
The National Association of Realtors, 8,000 of whom have gathered in Washington this week for their midyear legislative meeting, is making an extension of the loan guarantees a top lobbying priority....The Mortgage Bankers Association has opposed letting the limits drop, although a spokesman said its members were studying the issue.
I'd peg the number of genuine believers in free market capitalism at about 1% of the population. Maybe. The rest of us just want whatever policies benefit us the most. And the richer you are, the more money you make from policies that benefit you. Among the rich and the corporate elite, true believers in the free market probably number about 0%.
http://motherjones.com/kevin-drum/2011/05/culture-victimization-and-free-market

Occupy-Wallstreet.com

58Share"Rise like Lions after slumber
In unvanquishable number -
Shake your chains to earth like dew
Which in sleep had fallen on you -
Ye are many – they are few."
Percy B Shelley 1819
Time to start Chapter two! Today (November 17th) marks the beginning of the second round of global protest, after October 15th. Part of this is in response to the cowardly attack in the middle of the night against the Zuccotti encampment: roarmag.orgIt has been spectacular to watch people around the world stand up for their rights in 2011. The big question in my mind, was when Americans would start to manifest against the oppression and corruption in the US. On September 17th 2011, it turns out.
The importance of protest in the US is immeasurable. The US is able to influence all other countries, affecting their ability to practice democracy: if there is no democracy in the US, there won't be democracy anywhere.
The incredibly brave first wave of protest helped prove it can be done, that there is hope. Even when their efforts were blacked out of the main stream media completely, they fought on, with love, and the gesture has inspired millions. It took the shock of violence against peaceful protestors to jump start the media, but now the movement can no longer be ignored. Hope is growing, as more and more people around the world join the movement and organize to occupy their own cities. 82 countries have joined, in over 1000 cities. The message could not be more clear: we are not alone! We are feeding each other with love. This is what it is to be alive!
In part, this blog is my apology. I am sorry I lost faith something like this was possible. I am sorry I gave up hope, and felt overwhelmed by the staggering power of our oppressors. I am sorry I had the arrogance to think I was alone. This blog is also my thank you. OWS, you have restored my faith in America, in humanity, in myself. You have reminded me of something even bigger than Democracy or economic justice or social equality, you have reminded me of the ability of love to unlock our infinite power. Thank you, for revealing my fears to be what they are, just fears. Thank you, for awakening my heart. There is so much to be done. Thank you for uniting us, so we can get started.

15 Responses to Occupy-Wallstreet.comDonzel says:

  1. October 26, 2011 at 12:44 pm
  2. I believe as Thomas Jefferson believed. Wall Street Banks and other investment bankers should be controled. When the bankers cost tax payers money, they should have thier assets taken to cover the tax payers cost. When the banks go bankrupt, the goverment should close the bank(s) down.
  3. Replybruce block says:
    • October 28, 2011 at 5:45 am
    • what Jefferson was talking about was that the u.s. government should never give over the ability to issue money to a central bank such as the federal reserve that can inflate and deflate at whim, because what happens is that the whole structure of the economy becomes corrupted and migrates to feed off of the phenomena of monetary expansion. This is what happened in the financial crises as corporations i.e. mortgage lenders, investment banks ,rating agencies and insurance companies all colluded to justify the expansion of the banks ability to create debt through the fractional reserve banking system. Thomas Jefferson was a believer of free markets and capitalism but the American system corrupted by the power of the fed has veered from free market philosophy in the last thirty years and has become a fascist state .
    • Replyadmin says:
  4. October 26, 2011 at 1:12 pm
  5. I couldn't agree more. Unfortunately, those charged with controlling the banks (the Securities and Exchange Commission) have been compromised. Here is a great Rolling Stone piece on how the SEC is illegally covering up for the criminals they are supposed to prosecute. I guess you can easily afford bribes when you have stolen as much money as Wall Street has:
  6. http://www.rollingstone.com/politics/news/is-the-sec-covering-up-wall-street-crimes-20110817
  7. Replyerin says:
  8. October 27, 2011 at 6:29 pm
  9. For those in Oakland- the protesters started the altercation by throwing things (including glass bottles, paint, etc) at the police who then, as expected, started in with the flash bangs etc. Did they really expect to threaten and injur police officers and just have them stand there? I see so many articles claiming all the protesters kept returning peacefully-, and that is a flat out lie.
  10. If you want people to even take the time to listen to what you are protesting- then do it without being threatening to the general public and without destroying property etc. When you truly have a peaceful and legal gathering- then people may actually listen to you.
  11. Replyadmin says:
    • October 27, 2011 at 7:09 pm
    • Hi Erin,
    • I certainly agree that it is essential for OWS to remain nonviolent. I think so far the protestors have done a remarkable job, even when confronted with unnecessary force.
    • Bottles may have been thrown, but who knows who threw them, or why? Residents of Oakland have a lot of local issues to be angry about, such as the closing down of public schools, in what already is one of the most dismal school districts in America (the Oakland school district came up with Ebonics, as a way to move kids through the system without teaching them the skills they need for college or a good job). There is a long history of police violence in Oakland, which is totally unrelated this protest, most notably the murder of an unarmed man in a BART station by police. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eZTbJH6BNaU&feature=fvst
    • The very minor departure from nonviolence – which did not actually harm any police officers – does not represent the Occupy movement as a whole, whatsoever.
    • On the other hand, the police can be seen intentionally firing projectiles at people – which resulted in a fractured skull for a war veteran. Dispersing a crowd with tear gas is different than trying to hit people with the canisters. And the truth is, the police were already very well prepared to unleash a full blown assault. The few thrown bottles merely provided a catalyst for them to do what they had come to do.
    • ReplyGary Ehlenberger says:
  12. October 27, 2011 at 7:46 pm
  13. GREED KILLS
  14. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EdWmlnwhhlo
  15. Replyadmin says:
  16. November 6, 2011 at 6:51 pm
  17. Support Occupy Wallstreet. Too many riches are not deserve to the wealth. Stop working hard. Let the richest do everything including join the military to protect your country.
  18. Replyjohn allen roseborough says:
  19. November 10, 2011 at 6:07 pm
  20. It seems in light of the northamerican uprising that people are becomming aware of thier plight. Unfortunatly I don't see real change happening any time soon. Presently the E.U. is struggeling to maintain thier economic system so the few people who benefit from it may continue to do so. The same thing happened when the big banks and auto makers where bailed in the U.S. The bail out allowed the 1% (probably less) to continue to maintain a lifestyle that the average american could scarcely concieve. Any economy that allows one person to live in poverty and another to live in gross excess is flawed. The oil in the U.S. does not belong to B.P. or Exxon,
  21. It does not belong to Chinese share holders and most of all it does not belong to traders on wallstreet. So why are these companies and people living large off the American peoples. Well they are living large for the same reasons that debeers lives large off off the african people or gadaffi lived large off the lybian people. American Tax dollars subsidise these companies, american politicians profit form these deals and, American workers earning $8-$20 an hour pay for it all by working thier whole lives if thier lucky enough to have a steady job.
  22. Our planet cannot sustain unlimited growth. Our planet cannot sustain unlimited polution. We do not need tankers and aeroplanes so every corner store stocks wines from all over the world, or the few who can afford it can take trips to exotic places. We need to grow up as a comunity that can share this planet responsibly, with dignity and integrity. The science comunity as a whole have understood these problems for decades and It's a shame our politicians have yet to acknoledge these undeniable truths. As far as these protests are concerned, act responsibly with dignity and the knowledge that you have to do this for the next generation because it may well be the last chance this planet has to survive this bullshit.
  23. Replyjoel drotts says:
  24. November 26, 2011 at 9:10 am
  25. The Bankruptcy Abuse and Consumer Protection Act of 2005, Pub. L. No. 109-8, 119 Stat 23 (April 20, 2005), is the little known, but destructive force which the then sitting Legislature passed into law, stripping American's of the majority of their Chapter Seven Bankruptcy Court protections. This bill single handedly created and ensured the environment where "Predatory Lending" could begin, while creating the crooked Consumer Credit Rehabilitation Industry which is every bit as predatory as the "Predatory Lenders." Once this under the radar law was passed, in the name of controlling "Bankruptcy Abuse," added to the mortgage meltdown, bundling, and default practices which received all the press, the Legislature and the bequest of George Bush Junior gave greedy Wall Street fat cats all the tools they needed to almost bankrupt America via the 2008 crash.
  26. What exactly was it about this one simple law, which sounded good on it's face, which was able to cause such havoc with America's financial markets and way of doing business? Simply put in lay terms, it fundamentally changed the very way which America had done business, ever since the first store owner decided to provide his customers with credit. How? This law, removed the number one check on the market, on credit, and removed for businesses the most watched business variable in the book. The variable of which I am speaking of, is of course "Risk."
  27. Risk is what business get paid for. They're risking their capital, their time, their energies, and talents, and the reward is supposed to be the benefits you receive for taking that risk on yourself, your idea, your partners, or whatever business venture or enterprise a business person sees fit to risk their capital, time, effort, or resources into. If you're novel, better then the rest, efficient, nimbler, or whatever it is that makes you more successful than the rest, the rewards for your risk taking is of course your profits. That is the fundelmental way in which business works.
  28. As all businesses know, and usually have incorporated into their operating cost column is the risk of companies of individuals defaulting on credit you have extended them. Prior to the passage of this 2005 Act, every business and business-person in America worth their salt knew this to be an absolutely known fact and fundlemental rule of doing business. This risk is part of what entitled businesses to their hard earned profits. However, shortly after Bush Junior was elected, several large and well monied business interests decided they no longer liked the rules of the game. The rules of the market, of business, and decided that instead of them being good at their jobs, the Government should eliminate for them the most nature check on the market Capitalism has. Therefore, they lobbied the then Legislature, and the Republican President, to eliminate their credit risk by law.
  29. The bill became an Act, which according to the Constitution is perfectly legal as the Legislature may create the perimeter and laws with which the bankruptcy courts can operate upon and with. What happened next, is the story all American's know. After successfully convincing the Legislature that they were some how in danger of going bankrupt themselves, due to these so called "Bankruptcy Abusers," these billion dollar companies successfully got the Chapter Seven and even Eleven Bankruptcy Laws changed to where consumers could no longer receive a clean slate, and no matter what they had to repay their debts. Granted at slower, and reduced payments, but what this Act essentially did was create an indentured servant class out of consumers whom got in over their heads. No longer allowed a fresh start, American's debts now follow them for life.
  30. What makes this so evil, is that isn't the end of the story, it is the mere beginning. For starters, bankruptcy pre-Bankruptcy Abuse and Consumer Protection Act was not an easy thing. Yes, you got a fresh start, were debt free, allowed to keep certain nessicities like your car, home, and things of that nature. However, you couldn't receive a lick of credit, for seven years. Which meant whatever car you had, where ever you were living, or what you had when you filed for Chapter Seven Protections, was all you were going to have for the next seven years, unless you were able to successfully save up and pay in total the cash value of whatever you hoped to purchase. As every American knows, unless you're making bug bucks, isn't the easiest thing in the world to do.
  31. At the same time, these billion dollar companies were no where near bankruptcy, and merely wanted to ensure that their greed was protected by law. Smelling blood in the water, Wall Street crooks decided that since these new styled "never may be wiped clean debts" were now in existence and on the market, why not begin purchasing, bundling, creating financial products from, and give value to these defaulted on debts. The reasoning was, even though they are defaulted debts, they were still a secure risk or bet, as the Chapter Seven Laws had been changed to make it so these debts had to eventually be paid off according to the new and unfair laws. Once this idea caught on, there was only one thing left to do, and that was to ensure that more people got in over their heads and more of these defaulted debts were available on the market.
  32. As Wall Street not only controls the majority of the markets, it also controls the banks and lending companies as well. Pretty soon, American's are being given credit they could never afford to pay back, and consumerism hit an all time fever pitch. Mean while the banks, financial types, and other crooks, whom should almost be charged for treason for the way in which they attempted to destroy America's markets via their greedy, shortsightedness, and smugness about it, continued to find bigger and better things to utilize their new tools on. Finally, as we all know, they broke into the highest prize of all, the American dream itself, otherwise known as home ownership.
  33. Utilizing the same tactics, and principles learned from mere consumer debt assignment and debt selling, they expanded into the housing markets. Pretty soon, people were given $800,000 homes, with no money down, and with incomes as low as $40,000 a year. Then they introduced the variable rate loans to the game, so they could exelerate payments at will, or back-load heavy debts. The American consumer never stood a chance, and what was their crime…. Merely accepting money which was offered them, so they may have a shot at the American dream. In Law, the term for transactions like these are called "unfair bargaining power." It's when a sophisticated and knowledge possessing party intentionally convinces a less sophisticated and ignorant party to enter into a business or sales contract, which is morally corrupt, and one sided as far as the bargained for consideration of both parties. While not ill-legal, this legal remedy stands strongly in equity, and there is recourse for such victims. However, unless a party is a lawyer, they've probably unfamiliar with the equitable doctrine of "unfair bargaining power."
  34. So ignorant, the laws stacked against them, and having notions of living the American dream dangled in front of them, the average American consumer was purposely victimized and swindled by the greedy of their own countrymen. Without the protections the Courts were once allowed to offer in a Chapter Seven bankruptcy, as far as wiping a slate clean, and making the creditor the one whom had to bare the brunt of the defaulted credit or actually suffer the consequences of lending to risky credit seekers, the pockets of American's got emptier. People stopped buying things, businesses suffered drops in sales. Worst of all, the Wall Street crowd still pumping up the idea that these defaulted debts were the best thing since sliced bread, bundled, packaged, and sold these "products" to American's and foreigners alike. The people whom purchased these products, tended to be middle to upper class investors looking for a safe haven for their money, with a decent return on their risk.
  35. Therfore, these near treasonous Wall Street crooks, not only ripped off the poor, but stole from the middle to upper classes as well. By this time Bush is out, and he hands President Obama this shit sandwich that he and whatever idiot Bush had as his Treasurer created. Here is the sad and most infuriating part of this twisted tale, when all these debts came due, and the shit hit the fan, these Wall Street crooks and banks had the nerve to ask the very people they had just bankrupted, stolen fro, manipulated, and ripped off, to bail them out. To put a cherry on top of the shit Sunday, these doosh-bags served the American people, they then gave themselves these insultingly large bonuses and salaries. Their reasoning, so they could retain their talent. Mind you, this is the same talent that created and profitted from this mess.
  36. There's no class warfare, there's no one percent. There are people that are rightfully angry, but they don't know why. This is the cliff notes of what they're pissed off about, how it happened, and the arguments they need to be touting, instead of clogging traffic and being annoying. They should be petitioning their elected officials to undue the Bankruptcy Abuse Act, insist that any credit rehabilitation company be by law required to pay off all the debts of any consumer seeking help, and offer them a lower, longer, single monthly payment plan which is with-in the bad credit possessing parties budget. Instead, these crooked credit rehabilitation companies, take consumers money, hold it in trust, and offer to "negotiate" the same simple satisfaction and accord which any individual may due on their own. Meanwhile, the Credit Rehabilitation people use the money given them in trust, to make investments, the profits of which are not shared with the bad credit payee. This could constitute the crime of "usury," or a possible "conversion" if only for a short period of time.
  37. Do the Occupiers have a reason to be mad, absolutely! Are they stupid hippies, whom should conduct research into matters, and seek out legal recourse via a clear and concise message… Absolutely. This is just one man's opinion, and take on things. I have with purpose not included the fact that while all of this was taking place, the price of oil more then quadrupled, which in turn made everything twice as expensive. Which is ironic as most people are or were twice as broke. How to prosecute? Who are the major players of these actions. Names, dates, specific products sold, trace the monies, lop off the heads of those whom hurt the country financially, reinstall confidence in America's regulatory powers. Show the World we don't tolerate bullshit, get off the foreign oil, and use Solar Power and it's infrastructure capabilities, dollar saving possibilities, and most of all it's mass job creation abilities. Let's get this Country running again!
  38. Where do we start? Giving Joel Marshall Drotts his license to practice law, and get your best players off the God damned bench and in the game! Sure there's plenty of others like me. $98,000 a year, and I will go about hunting these fuckers down, and prosecuting them one by one. I'll do it with glee. As a patriot, as a lawyer, as a fighter, and let's face it, some one whom just loves to fight and argue! I want in the game, now coac
  39. Replyjoel drotts says:
  40. November 26, 2011 at 9:11 am
  41. We the People of the United States of America, citing our First Amendment right "to petition the Government for a redress of grievances," do hereby respectfully ask that the now sitting Legislature's of both the House of Representatives and the House of the Senate, in lawful accordance with Article One, Section Eight, sub-section Four, to re-amend all Chapter Seven and Eleven Bankruptcy Laws to their pre-existing state as of Nineteen Ninety Nine, thereby re-establishing the much needed protections and clean state debt forgiveness which were available to any United States citizen, legal alien, or resident whom did properly seek the protections of a Lawfully convened Court of Law, in proper accordance with the Federal Rules of Bankruptcy Procedure as so written in the year Nineteen Ninety Nine.
  42. We make this request of the Legislature, as a proper redress to our grievances. By signing this petition, I hereby state that under penalty of perjury and voter fraud that I am at least eight-teen years of age, I am a citizen of the United States of America, and I am lawfully allowed to vote by in the United States of America. Furthermore, by signing my name to this lawful petition to Congress I am stating that I do hereby agree that:
  43. 1. The risk of a credit default and the possibility of that debt never being paid by the debtee to a business debtor, is and has always been a proper check on the market, as well as a part of the risk which a business agrees to under take by extending consumers credit.
  44. 2. That for almost two-hundred years of this Nations history, businesses, not the consumers, have always been better situated to bare the costs associated with lending credit or monies to consumers. Furthermore, that the possibility of the bankruptcy of a debtee always had been and should once again become part of the risks one agrees to undertake when one goes into business, and extends credit or capital to a customer or consumer.
  45. 3. That the lack of this risk no longer being present or common place in the market or in matters of business, was and is the cause of predatory lending, mismanaged funds by individuals and businesses alike, which did created an era of unprecedented success to certain businesses in America, to the extreme detriment of the American Consumer.
  46. 4. That prior to Nineteen Ninety Nine, businesses, lenders, and creditors were required to properly assess, understand, and be held accountable for their lending and crediting practices, by way of simple fact that a debtee may become over extended and file Chapter Seven bankruptcy, whereby the debtor would lose all rights to claim a debt was owed them, after the proper proceedings and liquidations which could be a part of a Chapter Seven or Chapter Eleven filing. In other words, Consumers could have a clean slate, after a lawful bankruptcy proceeding.
  47. 5. That becoming even debt free, the filing of bankruptcy was never an easy or inexpensive task. Moreover, a bankruptcy was a mark on your credit, which could haunt a Consumer for up to seven years. Furthermore, that even if the myth of Bankruptcy Abuse were real, any such abuses could only be made possible by the negligence of a lender or creditor for not properly investigating and ascertaining the credit worthiness of an individual consumer or even a businesses.
  48. 6. Moreover, that it today modern age of instant information, the likelihood of a bankruptcy going un-noticed on a would be credit receiving parties record is highly unlikely, if not almost an impossibility. Therefore, a proper re-alignment and balancing of the risks and rewards willingly undertaken by both debtor and debtee, or lender to consumer, are not only proper but much needed.
  49. 7. That I am signing my name to this lawful petition to both Houses of the Legislature of the United States of America, I am with purpose invoking my First Amendment Right to petition my Government for a redress of my grievances, and hereby ask that those grievances are heard, understood, and lawfully remedied in the manner so prescribed in this petition.
  50. Respectfully,
  51. _______________________________________________________
  52. I understand it is a felony offense to unlawfully impersonate, transcribe the name of another individual, to forge another persons signature, and the name so attached to this petition, is my own, and that I am the person whose name I did with purpose, free of duress, fraud, or threat did lawfully transcribe and attach to this Petition to Legislature of the United States of America.
  53. Replyjoel drotts says:
  54. November 26, 2011 at 9:14 am
  55. Strategic Goals of The United States Solar Industry
  56. ROUGH DRAFT: I apologize for misspelling, language, and grammer
  57. 1. Solar systems on every roof, and plug in electric cars in every garage!
  58. This is the main goal of the Solar Industrial Complex, which in my mind is a hybrid Governmental and United States Industry mix. Government provides the proper incentives for business and industry to occupy the field, through a serious of carrot and stick tax, trading, manufacturing, and installation programs.
  59. Now, while the Federal Government can and should do all it can from the top down, in order for such massive and needed change to be instituted it must occur from the bottom up. Therefore, the question becomes, how can the Federal Government influence business and local governments at the City, County, and even State levels to successfully move America in the correct direction.
  60. 1. Mass Media
  61. Propaganda. Using legal dollars which are already in place from the Tobacco industry, alcohol, or other so called "sin tax" bullshit the US Government starts pumping out and under takes a national we're going solar ad campaign. This ad campaign should be on par with the national don't smoke, don't DUI, and other such already instituted advertising campaigns. The ads should feature the benefits and positiveness of local businesses, installing pay for plug electric hardware already available by General Electric and Siemens Corporation. The adds should also show FOR FREE, Chevy Covalts, Mitiubishi Electrics, as well as Nissen Electrics.
  62. What this does is show and say to American car manufacturing & Electric Infrastructure Hardware Creators that FREE ADVERTISEMENT will be made available to companies, by the United States Government who so properly chose to get on board with the program.
  63. 2. TAX Incentives and the Carrot
  64. A. It is and has been known for a great while to any tax attorney or Accountant worth their salt that Public Utility Companies pay no property taxes on energy producing lands, or properties. This law and tax code, is already legally usable by any independent tax producing family, city, county, or State Government. This is a good law, which needs to be touted and advertised. Every square footage of solar array, wind, or other such independent electric producing footage of an private home, business, or local governmental agency is legally exempt from all property tax.
  65. This doesn't mean the entire property, unless any such property is entirely dedicated to the generation of solar power production and storage. This is a system, already build into the tax code, where just as the square footage of a home office or business/ private home hybrid may be differently assets for tax purposes, so too shall the square footage of any building dedicated to the generation of solar power, and areas dedicated to even pay for plug or personal electric plug in areas. This program, is a proper usage of how the Treasury Laws or Tax Code may be properly used to influence government policy, as the Founding Father's set for in the Constitution.
  66. B. The EPA and other Federal Regulatory Bodies
  67. As the legislature has already given certain executive powers to the Office of the President, the President may at will enact and influence a large portion of Federal Policy. This is especially true when it comes to the areas of National Defense, where he is the Supreme Commander and Chief, as well as all energy policy. The reason such energy policies may be controlled is the Legislature has given the EPA, great amounts of power, which sort of another Legislative vote remanding said powers the President may do as he pleases.
  68. With that in mind, it is know that major Oil Companies seek to drill and expand the operations on shore. This is plausibly a good thing, as it will extend out the level and amounts of America's National Strategic Reserve Supplies. However, what the President may do, as the Primary Executive of this Country is cut deals with these oils companies. The deals would be far from the usual "sweet heart" deals, one generally thinks of. Instead, the President produces land grants, covenants, and contracts with the oil companies stating that:
  69. In order to drill, explore, or finance any new patrolium based activities, within the boundaries of the Untied States or as a part of any contract, land grant, or land covenant covered by this agreement, any such parties in good consideration for the right to continue further patrolium based activities must keep a good faith accounting of the costs, profits, and expenses of all such activities. Then the sum total of all three standard business accountings, when calculated in accordance with the standards put forth by the American Accounting Board (Forget the name of the American Bar Associations Eequivilant for Accountants), shall be matched dollar for dollar in tax exempt research, development, manufacturing, production, job creation, installation, or distribution of Solar Electric Technologies, Solar Electric Storage, and/or Solar Electric transmission and distribution programs, which as a part of good consideration for the right and privilege granted said company to undertake petroleum exploration, production, drilling, and/or extraction from Federal or State held lands. All financial benefits, wind-falls, or financial gains which may befall any such oil company through their good faith and legally funded dollar for dollar expenditures, made in the areas of Solar Electric generation, storage, distribution, transmission, electric transportaion, American home construction technologies and/or power saving technologies, shall be to the sole benefit of the creating company to mass produce, market, exploit, or profit from. However, at no time, may any ground breaking or patentable technologies created or discovered as a part of this program be patented without bringing said technologies to market within six-twelve months of said technology being patented. The sole purpose behind this patent clause is to ensure that no technologies are discovered and patented by any such participating company, merely to ensure that said technologies stay off the market and unavailable to the American Public for use, job creation, production, distribution, transmission, or construction.
  70. 3. LOCAL GOVERNMENT
  71. A. The role of local government on a nation wide scale
  72. A. Local government is the most crucial part of any strategic policy based plan, as while the Federal Government may attempt to dictate from the top down, the Constitution and pure logistics require that local City and County Governments enact the majority of any such program. For lack of a better term Local Government IS the boots on the ground. Therefore, what sorts of Federal Policies and Programs may be enacted, to help and not hinder the coffers of local Governments?
  73. California has taken the lead in this area, by allowing for the "Solar Leasing" and "Green Credit Sales," programs. These programs allow Solar installers to install onto the roofs of local buildings Solar Arrays, in exchange for the "Green Credits" which may be sold to polluting State or out of State companies, and the allowing of the sales of excess power generated to local utilities. The next legal and logical step, is for local Solar installation companies to install Solar Systems on medium to large apartment and office complex buildings, and sell at discounted rates electricity to the tenants. This sort of contractually legal arrangement, merely offers tenants of any rental space an alternative to the local municipality.
  74. The landlord entering into either a purchase agreement or leasing agreement, with the Solar Installer, offers a viable alternative to the local municipalities. If local Governments are smart enough not to tax such enterprises out of competitiveness, what local Cities would have his their first truly NEW stream of taxable income they've experienced in decades. As most municipalities, are taxed at the State level, due to their size, these local independent power producers offer NEW streams of much needed income to local governments. Of course, every City can do as they please, and the possibility for corrupt politicians to accept pay offs or moneys from the larger State sized municipalities is and will be an on going concern.
  75. We've already witnessed where sort sighted politicians, eager to fill coffers now, tax or other wise create an unfriendly local business environment through fees, dues, or even red-tape. As the boots on the ground, the Federal Government has little control over such business killing policies. However, the power of the Federal purse may again, be utilized to state certain Federal Dollars received by State and Local Governments are conditional upon exempting or strictly limiting the amount of local taxes placed on an industry America is attempting to grow nationally. Moreover, smart local politicians will be able to see the immediate local job creation, pay increases, joblessness, and over all economies grow from such a large, multi-teared, multi-trade and profession, manufacturing, distribution, instalation, and ultimately cost savings benefits visited upon the local citizenry.
  76. The more locals employed, the more locals saving on energy bills, and the more businesses looking to do business locally, pay reasonable permitting fees, the more locals will have to spend at local shops, entertainment attractions, and other benefits of economic bounty a local Government receives, when the local economy is thriving. Also if small enough, so they may remain competitive and cheaper than the large municipalities, local city governments may begin to tax small usage points, such as the State does on small independent power producers. Again, the main concern being that this NEW industries biggest chip in the big game is that they are cheaper and more efficient electric power producing entities, than the large State wide municipalities. If local Governments tax that advantage away, they will effectively kill this possible and huge job creating industry.
  77. B. Direct Income Sources and saving for local Governments
  78. It is crucial and already Constitutionally decided that it is local State and City Governments whom shall control and contract for their own cities needs. Under this pretext, City Governments can and should contract with large Solar Power Installation companies, and grant certain city contracts. A. Pay for plug hardware. B. Solar systems on City lands. C. Maintaining of City vehicle fleets.
  79. Every City shall be free to negotiate it's own contracts, and decide if it wants to buy, lease, rent, or partner with Solar Industries. A prime example is the now available Solar Power City Block Lights. These brighter then currently existing Solar Powered Street Lights. charge in the day, and are able to shine from dusk till dawn. With batteries and smart features, these lights can shine for several nights, one they have reached fully charged levels. Given the current millions of dollars large cities pay for the price of keeping their cities streets safely lit, would it not be smarter to either purchase for the ownership of the public solar powered street lamps, which have a ten year warranty on them? The alternative being to partner with or begin to accept bids from companies willing to install, maintain, and provide solar powered city street lights, which would be significantly cheaper than current municipalities prices.
  80. The author also reminds the reader that along with any such installation or project undertaken by the city, comes employment opportunities for the installers, maintainers, as well as all the local supplies and distribution houses whom will receive a major benefit from the undertaking of such projects. Local Electrical Union benches emptied, as teams of Electrical Contractors are put back to work installing cost effective and solar efficient solar street lamps, all to the benefit of the local economy. Moreover, that's just one example.
  81. San Francisco, being a prime and perfect City for any Federal, State, or Private experiments into just how cost effective, efficient, and beneficial Solar Systems could be for local Governments, Economies, and the Citizenry, San Francisco's MUNI system is an already electric powered system. If an entity, private or public, were able to install a Solar Electric System capable of generating enough power to power the Municipal Rails and Buses, the Solar Electric System would pay for itself. The City could quickly pay for any such system, by allocating
  82. .10-.25 out of every dollar paid the system by riders. This is the same concept used to pay off the now failed "Clipper Card" system. However, instead of complaints and more expense the City would actually enjoy drastic cost reductions in it's massive electric bill. These savings could then be allocated to other more needed areas of government, like police, fire, and recreation departments.
  83. Another cost saving area, would be the actual energy bills paid by local Government, just to keep it's own lights on. Aside from the City Street Lights, the actual operation of City buildings is quite expensive. Again, using a purchase as own, a leasing, or a hybrid model, the City could install Solar Electric Systems on the roofs, windows, and lands of the City, providing electric power cheaply and more efficiently than the current PUC's. This also allows the City to bid and contract out pay for plug hardware, for Citizens and even city fleets. Imagine the cost reductions of a City which had close no no electric bills, and had no gas bills to pay for the majority of it's fleet?
  84. Then imagine the amount of local jobs and growth of the local economy from undertaking and instituting such a program? Local suppliers, installers, contractors, car dealers, the Government, and all their employees all experiencing increases in pay, job creation, even local, state, and Federal taxes. Imagine if all major cities were to do this. However, like any large business plan, a test bed must be found and used. San Francisco makes a highly attractive test bed.
  85. 4. San Francisco the testing Ground
  86. 1. First and for most San Francisco's population is a more liberal and probably more willing population to undergo such an experiment. As a eco-friendly and a city with a mean average salary of $69,000-$74,000, and a City instituted minimum wage of $9.75 San Francisco is one of, if not the largest Economies on the West Coast of the United States of America.
  87. 2. As once said by Mark Twain, "The coldest winter I ever spent, was a summer in San Francisco." What Mr. Twain was referring to, is of course San Francisco's famous fog, which outside of London is as close to pea soup as an American city can get, as far as fog goes. Therefore, San Francisco proves to be a perfect test bed for Solar Technologies, which MUST be able to capture, harness, and convert the power of the Sun on foggy days as well as sunny. Thankfully, all Solar Technologies are efficient enough to harness the suns rays through even the foggiest of whether these days. However, exactly which solar electric system does so most efficiently is yet unproven or tested on a mass scale. Which is exactly why San Francisco makes such an excellent test bed.
  88. 3. As previously stated, almost %80 if not more of San Francisco's public transportation system is already electric based. Therefore, a large infrastructure (at least on a large city scale), already exists in San Francisco. All that would be needed is to convert the on grid electric power utilization system, to an independent power generating system, or a hybrid there of. The results, costs, and savings could then be measured, modeled, and reported nationally.
  89. 4. San Francisco has many medium to large apartment and business buildings, and some of the trickiest land covenants, historical landmark, and building code regulations in the United States of America. If compromises, legal precedent, and tactful legal interpretations around and through needless red tape can be accomplished in San Francisco, it can be done any where in the nation. As one of the two California State Bar Associations is located in San Francisco, the possibility of co-operation and the recognition of pro-bono hours for the highly specialized real-estate, business, trust, non-profit, and administrative law lawyers could be a possibility.
  90. 5. The political climate is such in San Francisco that any politician which apposed such pro-green, pro-job creation, pro-union, pro-environment, pro-cost savings, and first of it's kind opportunity like the one's so proposed, would be committing a political suicide by opposing such progressive movement. However, as any reader should realize this isn't really a progressive movement, it is a push to get America's political and industrial powers to realize the incredible job creating, cost saving, and nation saving abilities Solar Electric Technologies truly represent. For the first time, possibly ever in this nations history we are at a cross-roads, and presented with an everybody wins scenario, opportunity, and industry. It's all made possible by the Solar Electric Industry.
  91. Jobs? Creates them. Breaks our need for foreign oil? Does that as well. Jump start the economy with a large enough industry to sustain the United States of America? We're only limited by our own imaginations. Our power grid is over fifty years old, lets rebuild it. Only smarter, faster, and with Solar Electric Capabilities in mind. Are we the first Country to successfully pull this off? No, there is a German model to study, if the ney sayers must. Are we alone? No, our usual trading partners and allies, are merely waiting for the United States and her still the largest economy on the planet (for now), to make the right move, and to call the tune the rest of the Western World and Japan are going to dance to. Will it happen over night? No, but it the President started now, in four years time he can and will have pushed this movement so far forward that there can be no turning back.
  92. This isn't Jimmy Carter's solar panels on the White House roof. This is read Bill Clinton's latest book, The Diaries of an Economic Hit Man (To see what could happen in the negative), heeding the Presidents own call to Nation Build at Home, with President Mac Authors statement about "The military industrial complex," and the infrastructure of the 1950′s. Wrap those all together, then the President using the power of his office makes some phone calls to heads of car industries, Senators, and industry giants, he says "Just a heads up, this is where I plant on taking this Country. I'd like your help, if I can count on it, what do you can I do to help you to help me, help America? If not, you may gladly get left in the dust, because the only bail outs or bail ins or for these programs and ones that help."
  93. CEO's do it all the time. My Grandfather often would call personally local Electrical Contractors, to let them know Independent Electric was now doing business in their area, and would appreciate their business. My Grandfather found that having the President of IES call personally, and ask for business did a lot of good. Smoothed over egos, and made people flattered if a big guy calls on a little guy. Imagine what would happen if the Office of the President of The United States called a couple of industry big shots. They may be big shots, but a call from the President with a heads up has got to humble almost any American. Enough so, to get this plan into serious over drive, I know that much. Maybe he could leave off the last sentence, and state that publicly. Personally, I feel the President speaks for the American people, and that's probably about the tone people want taken with the so called "to big to fail" size companies.
  94. That's a good start, for an over-view. Each layer, level, or idea can and must be expanded upon greatly, either by this author, his partners, or those whom wish to run with and utilize this plan. This is a mere over view, a general direction, but specific enough to actually act upon on several levels by several parties. This isn't the end, this is the beginning.
  95. ReplyRosa McCurdy says:
  96. December 1, 2011 at 6:05 pm
  97. Occupy Walls Street is the greatest movement I have witnessed in my life time. I am 79 years old. I am proud of every American that takes part in and supports this movement. Keep up the good work OWS.
  98. Replykenneth E. ALDHIZEER says:
  99. December 13, 2011 at 12:24 am
  100. If all persons in this country had access to quality health insurance and education, especially emotional and mental health, then the statement that conservative republicans (who support the wealth) who say that the reason people in this country are poor, is their own fault, may have more meaning, But the children in the growing middle class who are financially hurting, the poor, the disabled, and the working poor do not have the resourses to send their children to education beyond high school, many of the parents themselves are emotionally unstable due to the lack of work, their children may drop out of school, do not graduate, they do not have quality medical insurance as you and the wealthier people in this country, The statements made by conservatives that money, quality medical care, and resources to pay for quality education and jobs for all of the unemployed, are not required to be successful persons but far too many conservatives in this country are people who are just not concerned with the unfortunate. It is their way of making themselves feel good, and will communicate with and pay people who agree with them, who themselves have no concious either. The money to pay for all of this will come from millions of the additional tax payers, billions plus in money saved from entitlement programs, billions saved from Justice systems including prisons where millions of non violent inmates who committed petty crimes for food or drug addition, and other government programs. these costly programs are like a giant whale, beached on a mountain side bellowing out, FEED ME, FEED ME!!
  101. Kenneth E. Aldhizer
  102. Moneta, Va.
  103. (ok to print)
  104. Reply

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Mobile Phone hazard


THE ADMINISTRATOR

EMR Administrator
Mobile Phone hazard
Knowledge of the hazards of non-ionising radiation has been around for the last 50 years. Whereas, the Russians took these problems seriously, Western industrial societies have weighted economical benefit against health problems and found economy to be more important than public health. Numerous papers, articles and books on low-level non-ionising radiation seem to have done little to alert the authorities even those coming from within governmental agencies themselves!!

In a recent paper issued by IEGMP: Independent Expert Group on Mobile Phones lead by Sir William Steward, famous British biochemist and leader of Association for the Advancement of Science, states mobile phone users may well experience long time exposure effects that will damage health. Especially warned were children in the paper Mobile Phones and Health issued April 2000. Sir Williams also scorned mobile phone producers for luring children to use mobile phones as essential " back to school" items.

December 8th 2000 the German Academy of Pediatrics issued a similar warning when advising parents not to encourage children to use mobile phones unnecessarily. They warned mobile phone radiation as a potential health hazard for the young generation. The same warning was issued by Wolfram Kônig from the Federal Agency for Protection from Radiation ( Bundesamt fûr Strahlenschutz) . In a press release July 31at 2001 in Berliner Morgenpost he urged people to consider that those sensitive to radiation may suffer ill effects, especially the younger generation

Several papers have been issued to warn pregnant women from exposure to ELF and HF non-ionising radiation. Professor Sianette Kwee of the Department of Medical Biochemistry at the University of Aarhus, Denmark, the Danish expert to European Unions COST281. Project group on Potential Health Effects from emerging Wireless Communication Systems, claims there is a substantial change in embryonic cells when exposed to ELF from power lines and MW from Mobile Phones !!The damage was greatest to young, fast growing embryonic cells.

Dr. Gerhard Hyland at the Department of Physics University of Warwick, Coventry, England states several hazards in his report at the STOA Committee of the EU dealing especially with children and mobile phones. His findings are alarming since he points to the fact that there will be resonant phenomena (building up of received energy with no chance of escape) within the scull-cavity, especially in sculls of the size of a young child! Young children using mobile phones or being close to a phone will also absorb more than a grown up due to a much thinner scull.

According to Hyland the 8.34 Hz and 2Hz pulses of current GSM phones lie in the range of normal brainwaves and may thus explain why such radiation is specially disturbing to the brains activity. Again this is most dangerous in children having an abundance of slow delta waves before the age of 12 when the faster alpha waves appear. Immune damage is also a problem not to be ignored.

In an article in Sunday Mirror December 27th 2001 headed "The Child Scrambler" a paper by Spanish scientists is quoted stating 2 minutes of mobile phone exposure to the ear causes altered brain activity for up to an hour afterwards, often resulting in aberrant behaviour, psychiatric problems and even ADHD—like problems.

The problem countered is even more problematic than first considered: In the Marbella Institute study in Spain quoted above, 87% of all kids, in the age group between 11-16 used mobile phones but when confronted with the findings as much as 70% said they did not bother about the consequences which bottom line means: regardless, of scientific warnings the average child is more willing to listen to producers advertising and the recommendations of their friends than hard science. Which of course rises a question of who should rule the market: science or mobile phone-companies.

Not only children suffer: older people do as well, Most recent breaking news is the suffering of WHO General Secretary Gro Harlem Brundtland, former Norwegian Prime Minister and chairman of the UN Brundtland Commission and way back also Labour Party minister of Environmental Protection in Norway. Highly respected for her work and achievements Brundtland now suffers the ill consequences of apparent overuse of unshielded PC-technology, Mobile Phone radiation and even a microwave oven accident injuring the GS's eyesight.

The GS`s health is now so fragile that no one is allowed to place a Mobile Phone , a PC or a bright light in her nearness, facts confirmed to both the Norwegian press and magazines such as Microwave News .In the midst of her suffering the GS has proclaimed that she will no longer hold the prestigious post as a "doctor to the world".
Explanations and investigations

Whereas official and mobile phone companies have tried to downplay the hazards by using obsolete measuring devices and focusing solely on the Joule/cm.

i.o.w. energy density absorption issue, claiming to find very little "heating effects" and thus stating the problem to be minimal ,even psychological, serious science focus on the main issue: biological resonance .Bio resonance is a well known phenomena acknowledged more than 60 years back when the first experiments with bio feedback started in the US . Briefly stated is works like this: living tissues like organs, vessels, nerves, individual cells, even their individual parts (organelles, proteins, enzymes and DNA) have certain energy absorption resonant frequencies where they start to absorb energy more intensely, and when doing so start to alter their manner of functioning sometimes improving their performance, but more often getting disturbed and starting to malfunction.

A considerable body of knowledge has been built up concerning radiation frequencies, wave topology (wave shape and pulse duration and the sequence of pulses) and their electromagnetic field strength. This body of knowledge today forms the firm foundation of a diversity of disciplines such as the benevolent art of magnetic healing, the German MORA-bio resonant therapy, the Hungarian Quantum Xeroid therapy and the more sinister art of electromagnetic warfare. Needless to say the players in the latter game is more often silent of their art en the other players, but enough is known by now to state firmly that MW is harmful even in nano-Joul/ cm2 quantities when topology and frequency is "right". Unfortunately current mobile phone technology has hit the wrong combination and unknowingly joined the wrong party .

Solid facts now appear to cause alarm. The more simplistic heating tissue problem claimed to be the only reason for concern by pro-mobile phone user has its problems these days. Dr. Kjell Hansson Mild at the National Institute of Occupational Health in Umeå in Sweden has shown that GSM phone users report heating effects after only 2 minutes use

Heavy users using the phone for more than 60 minutes pr day were 22 times more likely to experience heating effects to the head.

Professor Leif Salford at Lund University has shown that mobile phone radiation will cause an altered blood brain barrier and thus allow toxic elements to penetrate the brain more easily. Toxic penetration appears after only 2 minutes use of the phone. The effect is most probable a biological resonance effect.

If rats is your favourite topic it will be disturbing to know that professor Henry Lai and Narandra Singh at University of Washington in Seattle has found DNA damage to mobile phone exposed rats, most probably nonusers. Dr. John Tattersall at Porto Down Chemical and Biological Defence base in Wiltshire found that RF-radiation damaged the hippocampus of rats brains, the area a major structure for memory and learning abilities. These findings are disturbing because of their nature and because as some saw it, the funds came from DoH finding military research !

Clinical research is also abundant these days. In a study by Kjell Hansson Mild an colleges ( see above) published 1998 uncomfortable symptoms increased with the time exposed to mobile GSM phones. Symptoms investigated were problems as fatigue, headache, heat sensations to head, burning skin. The longer the exposure the more frequent the complaints For users exposed to 60 minutes or more pr day the increase; in symptoms were up to 16 fold, as for warmth behind the ears and 4 fold for feeling of exhaustion Certainly not a sign of safe technology at loose.

Theratronics involvement.

Our own involvement with the mobile phone hazards stems from my own "Brundtland syndrome" dating back to the eighties and nineties when being exposed to a considerable amount of ELF and HP and even MW and ionising radiation working with PCs and own experimental devices used for bio resonance research. When trying to find the answer to my own problems I tried many different ways to get answers ranging from the helpful assistance of Essentia in Canada, to various governmental agencies and finally starting to use the space-age equipment from Medtronik Germany, producing the MORA testing and bio resonance therapy (BRT) equipment. The latest reincarnation of their technology being the MORA Super plus machine sensitive to human micro radiation in the range of 20 -200KHz,picking up voltage as low as 10exp(-6) Volt. By using such equipment it is possible to analyse the reaction of living beings (even plants if necessary) and correct their energy pattern by the use of bio-feedback technology developed by Morell and. Rasche back in the sixties. Their technology has been tried and tested by thousands of users all over the world, with the major players in the German speaking world, but also numerous users in Canada.

Through constant feedback from users various protocols have been developed how to correct the aberrant bio energy of various diseases, even those electro magnetically diseased.

Through my association with the Med Tronic team and experienced users of their equipment I came to build my own database on mobile phone users problems and started to develop my own protocols of treatment resulting in the establishment of my Theratronics company at Fevik, Norway.

Before the company was started August 2002 we already had experience with 3000 individual measurements on MORA equipment.

We developed a specific protocol for testing and evaluating radiation caused problems, based on the Voll parameters and the tried and tested MORA-protocol. Before we undertook the Ecoflow assignment we ran several test series on a number of so-called shielding devices until we were sure of the protocol and the validity of our results.

But what about the improvements?? Since the only significant change takes place in the disappearance of the spin-inversion, the only conclusion is: what we see as, improvement is due to absence of spin inversion.

The type of spin inversion + excitation caused by mobile phones seems to be reflected in our parameters. If we impose a certain restriction on our readings and say we only want to deal with improvements greater than 2 ( above 1.6 on the average scale if we round off ) we are left with this conclusion:

Spin-inversion causes mostly: headaches, heat feeling burning sensation, pareztesia, restlessness, lack of concentration anger and irritation. It is not the sole contributor to those problems since these problems do not disappear totally when spin inversion disappears, but taking away the chaos-factor greatly reduces the problems ,actually on the average 42% improvements on the afore mentions problems!

The Biophone was not a "shielding device" at all, it is a "healing device" picking up signals from the radiation sick blood and returning the signal in a fashion that mimics a therapy signal.

The Biophone crystal-metal picks up the stress signals from the body when excited by the mobile phone, picks up the left—turning spin signals (the sick spin) phase invert the signal and returns to the body as a healing-signal.

In other words having worked with the Biophone for 6 months used thousands of kroners on the project, written for 200 hours and spent hours churning out numbers we ended up with some very, very ancient wisdom: crystals heal your body when attacked by harmful radiations.

Mobile Phone hazard


THE ADMINISTRATOR

EMR Administrator
Mobile Phone hazard
Knowledge of the hazards of non-ionising radiation has been around for the last 50 years. Whereas, the Russians took these problems seriously, Western industrial societies have weighted economical benefit against health problems and found economy to be more important than public health. Numerous papers, articles and books on low-level non-ionising radiation seem to have done little to alert the authorities even those coming from within governmental agencies themselves!!

In a recent paper issued by IEGMP: Independent Expert Group on Mobile Phones lead by Sir William Steward, famous British biochemist and leader of Association for the Advancement of Science, states mobile phone users may well experience long time exposure effects that will damage health. Especially warned were children in the paper Mobile Phones and Health issued April 2000. Sir Williams also scorned mobile phone producers for luring children to use mobile phones as essential " back to school" items.

December 8th 2000 the German Academy of Pediatrics issued a similar warning when advising parents not to encourage children to use mobile phones unnecessarily. They warned mobile phone radiation as a potential health hazard for the young generation. The same warning was issued by Wolfram Kônig from the Federal Agency for Protection from Radiation ( Bundesamt fûr Strahlenschutz) . In a press release July 31at 2001 in Berliner Morgenpost he urged people to consider that those sensitive to radiation may suffer ill effects, especially the younger generation

Several papers have been issued to warn pregnant women from exposure to ELF and HF non-ionising radiation. Professor Sianette Kwee of the Department of Medical Biochemistry at the University of Aarhus, Denmark, the Danish expert to European Unions COST281. Project group on Potential Health Effects from emerging Wireless Communication Systems, claims there is a substantial change in embryonic cells when exposed to ELF from power lines and MW from Mobile Phones !!The damage was greatest to young, fast growing embryonic cells.

Dr. Gerhard Hyland at the Department of Physics University of Warwick, Coventry, England states several hazards in his report at the STOA Committee of the EU dealing especially with children and mobile phones. His findings are alarming since he points to the fact that there will be resonant phenomena (building up of received energy with no chance of escape) within the scull-cavity, especially in sculls of the size of a young child! Young children using mobile phones or being close to a phone will also absorb more than a grown up due to a much thinner scull.

According to Hyland the 8.34 Hz and 2Hz pulses of current GSM phones lie in the range of normal brainwaves and may thus explain why such radiation is specially disturbing to the brains activity. Again this is most dangerous in children having an abundance of slow delta waves before the age of 12 when the faster alpha waves appear. Immune damage is also a problem not to be ignored.

In an article in Sunday Mirror December 27th 2001 headed "The Child Scrambler" a paper by Spanish scientists is quoted stating 2 minutes of mobile phone exposure to the ear causes altered brain activity for up to an hour afterwards, often resulting in aberrant behaviour, psychiatric problems and even ADHD—like problems.

The problem countered is even more problematic than first considered: In the Marbella Institute study in Spain quoted above, 87% of all kids, in the age group between 11-16 used mobile phones but when confronted with the findings as much as 70% said they did not bother about the consequences which bottom line means: regardless, of scientific warnings the average child is more willing to listen to producers advertising and the recommendations of their friends than hard science. Which of course rises a question of who should rule the market: science or mobile phone-companies.

Not only children suffer: older people do as well, Most recent breaking news is the suffering of WHO General Secretary Gro Harlem Brundtland, former Norwegian Prime Minister and chairman of the UN Brundtland Commission and way back also Labour Party minister of Environmental Protection in Norway. Highly respected for her work and achievements Brundtland now suffers the ill consequences of apparent overuse of unshielded PC-technology, Mobile Phone radiation and even a microwave oven accident injuring the GS's eyesight.

The GS`s health is now so fragile that no one is allowed to place a Mobile Phone , a PC or a bright light in her nearness, facts confirmed to both the Norwegian press and magazines such as Microwave News .In the midst of her suffering the GS has proclaimed that she will no longer hold the prestigious post as a "doctor to the world".
Explanations and investigations

Whereas official and mobile phone companies have tried to downplay the hazards by using obsolete measuring devices and focusing solely on the Joule/cm.

i.o.w. energy density absorption issue, claiming to find very little "heating effects" and thus stating the problem to be minimal ,even psychological, serious science focus on the main issue: biological resonance .Bio resonance is a well known phenomena acknowledged more than 60 years back when the first experiments with bio feedback started in the US . Briefly stated is works like this: living tissues like organs, vessels, nerves, individual cells, even their individual parts (organelles, proteins, enzymes and DNA) have certain energy absorption resonant frequencies where they start to absorb energy more intensely, and when doing so start to alter their manner of functioning sometimes improving their performance, but more often getting disturbed and starting to malfunction.

A considerable body of knowledge has been built up concerning radiation frequencies, wave topology (wave shape and pulse duration and the sequence of pulses) and their electromagnetic field strength. This body of knowledge today forms the firm foundation of a diversity of disciplines such as the benevolent art of magnetic healing, the German MORA-bio resonant therapy, the Hungarian Quantum Xeroid therapy and the more sinister art of electromagnetic warfare. Needless to say the players in the latter game is more often silent of their art en the other players, but enough is known by now to state firmly that MW is harmful even in nano-Joul/ cm2 quantities when topology and frequency is "right". Unfortunately current mobile phone technology has hit the wrong combination and unknowingly joined the wrong party .

Solid facts now appear to cause alarm. The more simplistic heating tissue problem claimed to be the only reason for concern by pro-mobile phone user has its problems these days. Dr. Kjell Hansson Mild at the National Institute of Occupational Health in Umeå in Sweden has shown that GSM phone users report heating effects after only 2 minutes use

Heavy users using the phone for more than 60 minutes pr day were 22 times more likely to experience heating effects to the head.

Professor Leif Salford at Lund University has shown that mobile phone radiation will cause an altered blood brain barrier and thus allow toxic elements to penetrate the brain more easily. Toxic penetration appears after only 2 minutes use of the phone. The effect is most probable a biological resonance effect.

If rats is your favourite topic it will be disturbing to know that professor Henry Lai and Narandra Singh at University of Washington in Seattle has found DNA damage to mobile phone exposed rats, most probably nonusers. Dr. John Tattersall at Porto Down Chemical and Biological Defence base in Wiltshire found that RF-radiation damaged the hippocampus of rats brains, the area a major structure for memory and learning abilities. These findings are disturbing because of their nature and because as some saw it, the funds came from DoH finding military research !

Clinical research is also abundant these days. In a study by Kjell Hansson Mild an colleges ( see above) published 1998 uncomfortable symptoms increased with the time exposed to mobile GSM phones. Symptoms investigated were problems as fatigue, headache, heat sensations to head, burning skin. The longer the exposure the more frequent the complaints For users exposed to 60 minutes or more pr day the increase; in symptoms were up to 16 fold, as for warmth behind the ears and 4 fold for feeling of exhaustion Certainly not a sign of safe technology at loose.

Theratronics involvement.

Our own involvement with the mobile phone hazards stems from my own "Brundtland syndrome" dating back to the eighties and nineties when being exposed to a considerable amount of ELF and HP and even MW and ionising radiation working with PCs and own experimental devices used for bio resonance research. When trying to find the answer to my own problems I tried many different ways to get answers ranging from the helpful assistance of Essentia in Canada, to various governmental agencies and finally starting to use the space-age equipment from Medtronik Germany, producing the MORA testing and bio resonance therapy (BRT) equipment. The latest reincarnation of their technology being the MORA Super plus machine sensitive to human micro radiation in the range of 20 -200KHz,picking up voltage as low as 10exp(-6) Volt. By using such equipment it is possible to analyse the reaction of living beings (even plants if necessary) and correct their energy pattern by the use of bio-feedback technology developed by Morell and. Rasche back in the sixties. Their technology has been tried and tested by thousands of users all over the world, with the major players in the German speaking world, but also numerous users in Canada.

Through constant feedback from users various protocols have been developed how to correct the aberrant bio energy of various diseases, even those electro magnetically diseased.

Through my association with the Med Tronic team and experienced users of their equipment I came to build my own database on mobile phone users problems and started to develop my own protocols of treatment resulting in the establishment of my Theratronics company at Fevik, Norway.

Before the company was started August 2002 we already had experience with 3000 individual measurements on MORA equipment.

We developed a specific protocol for testing and evaluating radiation caused problems, based on the Voll parameters and the tried and tested MORA-protocol. Before we undertook the Ecoflow assignment we ran several test series on a number of so-called shielding devices until we were sure of the protocol and the validity of our results.

But what about the improvements?? Since the only significant change takes place in the disappearance of the spin-inversion, the only conclusion is: what we see as, improvement is due to absence of spin inversion.

The type of spin inversion + excitation caused by mobile phones seems to be reflected in our parameters. If we impose a certain restriction on our readings and say we only want to deal with improvements greater than 2 ( above 1.6 on the average scale if we round off ) we are left with this conclusion:

Spin-inversion causes mostly: headaches, heat feeling burning sensation, pareztesia, restlessness, lack of concentration anger and irritation. It is not the sole contributor to those problems since these problems do not disappear totally when spin inversion disappears, but taking away the chaos-factor greatly reduces the problems ,actually on the average 42% improvements on the afore mentions problems!

The Biophone was not a "shielding device" at all, it is a "healing device" picking up signals from the radiation sick blood and returning the signal in a fashion that mimics a therapy signal.

The Biophone crystal-metal picks up the stress signals from the body when excited by the mobile phone, picks up the left—turning spin signals (the sick spin) phase invert the signal and returns to the body as a healing-signal.

In other words having worked with the Biophone for 6 months used thousands of kroners on the project, written for 200 hours and spent hours churning out numbers we ended up with some very, very ancient wisdom: crystals heal your body when attacked by harmful radiations.
http://www.energetic-medicine.net/bioenergetic-articles/articles/49/1/Mobile-Phone-hazard/Page1.html

Students warned against hazards of smoking

by Ananda Kannangara
The National Cancer Institute (NCI), Maharagama will launch a cancer awareness program islandwide shortly to educate schoolchildren on the hazards of cigarette smoking.
According to reports over 18,000 new cancer patients seek treatment at the NCI every year and the majority of them are affected with cancer due to cigarette smoking.
Dr. Samadhi Rajapaksa of the NCI told the Sunday Observer that over 75 percent of oral and lung cancer was caused due to cigarette smoking and tobacco consumption and it is now time for responsible officials to take tough action in this regard.
Although there was a significant drop in cigarette smoking among the younger generation it is the duty of teachers and parents to create awareness on the hazards of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption.
Dr. Rajapaksa who compared a cigarette to a cyanide capsule warned schoolchildren to avoid being even in the vicinity of smokers.
Passive smoking could cause even heart attacks and strokes apart from lung, oral and breast cancer. He cautioned teachers and parents to keep a close eye on male students who could get addicted easily to smoking and other tobacco related products, since tobacco is generally recognised as the country's number one killer. Dr. Rajapaksa thanked the National Authority on Tobacco and Alcohol, Chairman Prof. Carlo Fonseka for enforcing the ban on the sale of tobacco related products in close proximity to schools.
http://www.sundayobserver.lk/2011/07/31/new42.asp

Student Safety Audit Identifies Hazards Around Campus

The ASUW Committee on Student Safety sent a survey to students in February and received 994 responses about safety on campus.

The Daily
Wednesday, April 21, 2010
Qixiu Hu
Tunny Vann, ASUW director of community relations, inspects safety utilities on Northeast Campus Parkway.
#The ASUW Committee on Student Safety sent a survey to students in February and received 994 responses about safety on campus. In response, the ASUW took part in its first auditing — or "safety walk" — Monday.
#The group investigated potential safety hazards around the periphery of campus, including Northeast Campus Parkway. The area near Terry and Lander Hall was a popular choice among survey participants when they were asked about the on-campus location in which they felt most unsafe. Participants took notes on lighting, signage, sightlines, emergency services, disability accommodations, maintenance, personal safety, and other aspects of areas on campus.
#Tunny Vann, Director of Community Relations, said that the "Broken Windows theory" guided him during his auditing.
#"If the area doesn't feel like it's being taken care of, it will give the impression of being unsafe," Vann said.
#The theory says that places that appear neglected are prone to more safety risks. Vann jotted down notes about graffiti, litter and construction sites — all "broken windows" on campus.
#Construction sites, specifically, came back as one of the leading concerns among student participants in the survey. Students felt the abandoned sites were prime places for criminals to dwell. Excessive bushes and shrubbery were also noted in the auditing process as places where criminals could hide.
#One of the large focuses in the auditing process was on lighting. In order to simulate a day in the life of a UW student, it was decided that the auditing would take place at various times during the day — both in the afternoon and the late evening, as lighting changed. Participants checked for the distribution of lights, obstruction of light and the quantity of light sources.
#Abigail Pearl, ASUW representative and organizer of the initiative, took geography and women studies fall quarter. Pearl found many of the course's lessons to be applicable to the UW at large. One specific project that the class worked on involved observing places on campus deemed to be unsafe. When Pearl became an ASUW committee member, she decided to convert the classroom project to a larger scale by conducting the safety survey and the campus-safety audit.
#The results from the original survey suggested that a large portion of participants felt at great risk when in close proximity to the homeless.
#"The amount of notes about homelessness in conjunction with safety was pretty telling," Pearl said. "We can't necessarily eliminate [homelessness], but I hope to at least educate people about poverty — the human aspect of homelessness."
#The next auditing group will meet Monday at 5:30 p.m. in the HUB to audit the interior of campus. The results will be presented to the Office of Student Life, the UW Police Department, and Facilities Services, among other departments, by the end of the quarter.
#Reach reporter Colin Gorenstein at news@dailyuw.com.

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Knowledge economy

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Other types of economies

The knowledge economy is a term that refers either to an economy of knowledge focused on the production and management of knowledge in the frame of economic constraints, or to aknowledge-based economy. In the second meaning, more frequently used, it refers to the use of knowledge technologies (such as knowledge engineering and knowledge management) to produce economic benefits as well as job creation. The phrase was popularized by Peter Drucker as the title of Chapter 12 in his book The Age of Discontinuity, And, with a footnote in the text, Drucker attributes the phrase to economist Fritz Machlup and its origins to the idea of "scientific management" developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor.[1]
The essential difference is that in a knowledge economy, knowledge is a product, while in aknowledge-based economy, knowledge is a tool. This difference is not yet well distinguished in the subject matter literature. They both are strongly interdisciplinary, involving economists, computer scientists, engineers, mathematicians, librarians, geographers, chemists and physicists, as well as cognitivists, psychologists and sociologists.
Various observers describe today's global economy as one in transition to a "knowledge economy," as an extension of an "information society." The transition requires that the rules and practices that determined success in the industrial economy need rewriting in an interconnected, globalized economy where knowledge resources such as know-how and expertise are as critical as other economic resources. According to analysts of the "knowledge economy," these rules need to be rewritten at the levels of firms and industries in terms of knowledge management and at the level of public policy as knowledge policy or knowledge-related policy.[citation needed]

[edit]Concepts

A key concept of the knowledge economy is that knowledge and education (often referred to as "human capital") can be treated as one of the following two:
  • A business product, as educational and innovative intellectual products and services can be exported for a high value return.
  • A productive asset

It can be defined as
" The concept that supports creation of knowledge by organizational employees and helps and encourages them to transfer and better utilize their knowledge that is in line with company/organization goals "
The initial foundation for the Knowledge Economy was first introduced in 1966 in the book The Effective Executive by Peter Drucker. In this book, Drucker described the difference between the manual worker (page 2) and the knowledge worker. The manual worker, according to him, works with his hands and produces goods or services. In contrast, a knowledge worker (page 3) works with his or her head not hands, and produces ideas, knowledge, and information.
The key problem in the formalization and modeling of knowledge economy, is a vague definition of knowledge, which is a rather relative concept. For example, it is not proper to consider information society as interchangeable with knowledge society. Information is usually not equivalent to knowledge. Their use, as well, depends on individual and group preferences (see the cognitive IPK model) – which are "economy-dependent".[2]

[edit]Definition

To participate in the knowledge economy trade[3] the World Bank provides four core requirements[4] in their Knowledge Assessment Methodology that a country must have. The World Bank defines the requirements as having sound institutional and economic regime, education system, and telecommunications infrastructure, and an Innovative System.[5][6]

[edit]Evolution

The knowledge economy is also seen as the latest stage of development in global economic restructuring. Thus far, the developed world has transitioned from an agricultural economy (pre-Industrial Age, largely the agrarian sector) to industrial economy (with the Industrial Age, largely the manufacturing sector) to post-industrial/mass production economy (mid-1900s, largely the service sector) to knowledge economy (late 1900s – 2000s, largely the technology/human capital sector). This latest stage has been marked by the upheavals in technological innovations and the globally competitive need for innovation with new products and processes that develop from the research community (i.e., R&D factors, universities, labs, educational institutes).
In the knowledge economy, the specialized labor force is characterized as computer literate and well-trained in handling data, developing algorithms and simulated models, and innovating on processes and systems. Harvard Business School Professor, Michael Porter asserts that today's economy is far more dynamic and that comparative advantage is less relevant than competitive advantage which rests on "making more productive use of inputs, which requires continual innovation."[7] Consequently, the technical, STEM careers including computer scientists, engineers, chemists, biologists, mathematicians, and scientific inventors will see continuous demand in years to come. Additionally, well-situated clusters, which Michael Porter argues is vital in global economies, connect locally with linked industries, manufacturers, and other entities that are related by skills, technologies, and other common inputs. Hence, knowledge is the catalyst and connective tissue in modern economies.
With earth's depleting natural resources, the need for green infrastructure, a logistics industry forced into just-in-time deliveries, growing global demand, regulatory policy governed by performance results, and a host of other items high priority is put on knowledge; and research becomes paramount. Knowledge provides the technical expertise, problem-solving, performance measurement and evaluation, and data management needed for the transboundary, interdisciplinary global scale of today's competition.[8]
Worldwide examples of the knowledge economy taking place among many others include: Silicon Valley in California; aerospace and automotive engineering in Munich, Germany; biotechnology in Hyderabad, India; electronics and digital media in Seoul, South Korea;petrochemical and energy industry in Brazil.

[edit]Driving forces

Commentators suggest there are various interlocking driving forces, which are changing the rules of business and national competitiveness:
As a result, goods and services can be developed, bought, sold, and in many cases even delivered over electronic networks.
As regards the applications of any new technology, this depends on how it meets economic demand. It can remain dormant or make a commercial breakthrough (see diffusion of innovation).

[edit]Characteristics

It can be argued that the knowledge economy differs from the traditional economy in several key respects:
  • The economics are not of scarcity, but rather of abundance. Unlike most resources that become depleted when used, information and knowledge can be shared, and actually grow through application.
  • The effect of location is either
    • diminished, in some economic activities: using appropriate technology and methods, virtual marketplaces and virtual organizations that offer benefits of speed, agility, round the clock operation and global reach can be created.
    • or, on the contrary, reinforced in some other economic fields, by the creation of business clusters around centres of knowledge, such as universities and research centres. However, clusters already existed in pre-knowledge economy times.
  • Laws, barriers, taxes and ways to measure are difficult to apply solely on a national basis. Knowledge and information "leak" to where demand is highest and the barriers are lowest.
  • Knowledge enhanced products or services can command price premiums over comparable products with low embedded knowledge or knowledge intensity.
  • Pricing and value depends heavily on context. Thus the same information or knowledge can have vastly different value to different people, or even to the same person at different times.
  • Knowledge when locked into systems or processes has higher inherent value than when it can "walk out of the door" in people's heads.
  • Human capital — competencies — are a key component of value in a knowledge-based company, yet few companies report competency levels in annual reports. In contrast, downsizing is often seen as a positive "cost cutting" measure.
  • Communication is increasingly being seen as fundamental to knowledge flows. Social structures, cultural context and other factors influencing social relations are therefore of fundamental importance to knowledge economies.

These characteristics require new ideas and approaches from policy makers, managers and knowledge workers.
The knowledge economy has manifold forms in which it may appear but there are predictions that the new economy will extend radically, creating a pattern in which even ideas will be recognised and identified as a commodity. This certainly is not the best time to make any hasty judgment on this contention, but considering the very nature of 'knowledge' itself, added to the fact that it is the thrust of this new form of economy, there certainly is a clear way forward for this notion, though the particulars (i.e. the quantum of the revolutionary approach and its applicability and commercial value),remain in the speculative realm, as of now.

[edit]Technology

The technology requirements for an Innovative System as described by the World Bank Institute must be able to disseminate a unified process by which a working method may converge scientific and technology solutions, and organizational solutions.[9] According to the World Bank Institute's definition, such innovation would further enable the World Bank Institute's vision outlined in their Millennium Development Goals.

[edit]Challenges for Developing Countries

The United Nations Commission on Science and Technology for Development report (UNCSTD, 1997)[10] concluded that for developing countries to successfully integrate ICTs and sustainable development in order to participate in the knowledge economy they need to intervene collectively and strategically. Such collective intervention suggested would be in the development of effective national ICT policies that support the new regulatory framework, promote the selected knowledge production, and use of ICTs and harness their organizational changes to be in line with the Millennium Development Goals. The report further suggests that developing countries to develop the required ICT strategies and policies for institutions and regulations taking into account the need to be responsive to the issues of convergence.

[edit]See also


[edit]References

  1. ^ Peter Drucker, (1969). The Age of Discontinuity; Guidelines to Our Changing Society. Harper and Row, New York. ISBN 0-465-08984-4
  2. ^ Terry Flew (2008), New Media: An Introduction
  3. ^ Knowledge for Development - About
  4. ^ The Four Pillars of The Knowledge Economy
  5. ^ "Knowledge for Development".
  6. ^ Benchmarking countries in the knowledge economy: presentation of the Knowledge Assessment Methodology (KAM). Knowledge for development program, World Bank Institute, 2004, pg 4
  7. ^ Michael Porter, "Clusters and the New Economics of Competition." Harvard Business Review.
  8. ^ The Brookings Institution. MetroPolicy: Shaping A New Federal Partnership for a Metropolitan Nation Report. (2008)
  9. ^ IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON KNOWLEDGE AND DATA ENGINEERING, Automatic Fuzzy Ontology Generation for Semantic Web, VOL. 18, NO. 6, JUNE 2006
  10. ^ UNCSTD (1997). United Nations Commission on Science and Technology for Development, - Report of the Working Group on ICTs for Development prepared for the 3rd Session, 12 May, Geneva, Switzerland

[edit]Bibliography

  • Arthur, W. B. (1996). Increasing Returns and the New World of Business. Harvard Business Review(July/August), 100–109.
  • Bell, D. (1974). The Coming of Post-Industrial Society: A Venture in Social Forecasting. London: Heinemann.
  • Drucker, P. (1969). The Age of Discontinuity; Guidelines to Our changing Society. New York: Harper and Row.
  • Drucker, P. (1993). Post-Capitalist Society. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann.
  • Machlup, F. (1962). The Production and Distribution of Knowledge in the United States. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Porter, M. E. Clusters and the New Economics of Competition. Harvard Business Review. (Nov-Dec 1998). 77-90.
  • Romer, P. M. (1986). Increasing Returns and Long-Run Growth. Journal of Political Economy, 94(5), 1002–1037.
  • Rooney, D., Hearn, G., Mandeville, T., & Joseph, R. (2003). Public Policy in Knowledge-Based Economies: Foundations and Frameworks. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
  • Rooney, D., Hearn, G., & Ninan, A. (2005). Handbook on the Knowledge Economy. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
  • The Brookings Institution. MetroPolicy: Shaping A New Federal Partnership for a Metropolitan Nation. Metropolitan Policy Program Report. (2008). 4-103.

[edit]External links


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Health-related lifestyle in adolescence—origin of social class differences in health?

  1. L. K. Koivusilta,
  2. A. H. Rimpelä1 and
  3. M. K. Rimpelä2

+Author Affiliations
  1. Department of Public Health, University of Turku, Lemminkäisenkatu 1, 20520 Turku,
  2. 1Tampere School of Public Health, University of Tampere, Box 607,33101 Tampere and Tampere University Hospital, Box 2000, 33521, Tampere, and
  3. 2National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health (STAKES), Box 220, 00531 Helsinki, Finland
  • Received April 4, 1997.
  • Accepted April 16, 1998.

Next Section

Abstract

Survey data collected by mail, representing Finnish 16 year olds (N = 2977; response rate 83%), were used to identify which particular aspects of lifestyle are typical of adolescents who select various educational tracks and, thus, have different probabilities of ending up in low or high social positions. The dependent variable, educational track, was formed by classifying the respondents into five successive categories predicting their social position in adulthood. Lifestyle is measured by health behaviours, leisure-time activities and social relations. The probability of belonging to educational tracks with good social prospects in adulthood was high among adolescents who placed much emphasis on health-enhancing behaviours (not smoking, physical exercise, low milk-fat diet, dental hygiene, use of seatbelts, etc.), who did not spend much time watching TV or listening to music and who attended church or other religious meetings weekly. Health-related lifestyle, at the age of 16, is oriented towards the social group the individual is likely to belong to as an adult. The study provides evidence for a strong association between health-related lifestyle and educational track in adolescence.
Previous SectionNext Section

Introduction

A way of life involving risks for ill-health is in general more common among people in lower social classes or those with a poorer education. These behaviours include, for example, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, lack of physical activity, bad sleeping patterns, unfavourable food habits (e.g. a high fat intake), coffee drinking, and engaging in high-risk activities and sexual practices (Macintyre, 1986; Hasan, 1989; Marmot et al., 1991; Adler et al., 1993;Glendinning et al., 1994; Mackenbach, 1994; Helakorpi et al., 1995; Pill et al., 1995). Since these behaviours are associated with both health and social class, they may be hypothesized as being factors producing socioeconomic health differences.
The interaction between social class and health-related lifestyle is apparent already during the early years of life. The social environment of children and adolescents, consisting of, for example, family and peers, constitutes the context in which behaviours are learned, encouraged and practised (Taylor and Repetti, 1997). Some health-related behaviours can be seen as consequences of various styles of coping with stress, caused by the social environment. Inappropriate behaviours come from dysfunctional coping styles, like helplessness or hopelessness, altered perceptions of risk and vulnerability, and an undue willingness to behave in risky ways. Among the factors that form people's resources for confronting the stressors are socioeconomic conditions, the type and severity of life events, the amount of social support, and the access to information. These all differ according to social class, although there are also individual differences in responding to influences coming from the environment (Rutter and Quine, 1994; Taylor and Repetti, 1997). On the other hand, the interaction between social class and health-related lifestyle may arise from the economic possibilities and other contextual factors, e.g. wholesome food may be more expensive, which limits the actual possibilities of the poor to maintain a healthy diet. Also, in households which do not have a car, it is difficult to take children to instructive hobbies, like many forms of exercise and sports.
It is possible that the same features of social environment which constitute the association between social class and health-related lifestyle influence the association between social background and education, as well. Acquiring education may be an indication of a person's feeling that life is under control to the extent that far-reaching plans can be made. The realization of their plans requires a strong self-esteem and is hardly possible without support from one's immediate circle. It can be thought that giving value to knowledge is reflected in the appreciation of education as well as of health-promoting behaviours.
Many studies show that children from higher social class families reach the highest levels of education (Cobalti, 1990; Blackburn and Marsh, 1991; Mehan, 1992; Roberts and Parsell, 1992; Mauger, 1993; Erikson and Jonsson, 1996;Bourdieu and Passeron, 1977). Economic resources influence the costs attached to decisions about whether or not to continue schooling. Also the choice between academic and vocational studies is affected by the costs, benefits and probability of success. However, background factors other than economic resources seem to be more important for explaining the association between social origin and educational decisions (Erikson and Jonsson, 1996).
Social class differences in children's home environments, like patterns of interaction between parents and children, may explain why academic performance is better among children from higher social classes. More highly educated parents place a high value on education and may help their offspring's educational performance, e.g. by verbal training and practical help with schoolwork. (Argyle, 1994; Erikson and Jonsson, 1996). They transmit to their children cultural capital that helps them to adapt to school values and to navigate the educational system (Bourdieu and Passeron, 1977). Well-educated parents also tend to have a great confidence in their children's probability of success and in their own capacity to get them through the more demanding tracks. Lower class parents need stronger evidence of their children's potential before making decisions about higher education (Erikson and Jonsson, 1996).
Altogether, it is hypothesized that social background creates the starting point for the development of a health-related lifestyle and the educational track an individual is going to follow. One's background, on the one hand, offers economic resources for various lifestyles and education, and, on the other hand, creates a social environment in which lifestyles and educational decisions are made. This environment consists of values, social support and social resources for coping in life. The interplay between lifestyle and education forms a process, during which individuals gradually take up their positions in relation to their future health and social status. This process has a bearing on health differences between social classes.
The phenomenon of health behaviours differing according to the length of education that people are going to acquire is obvious in adolescence (West, 1988, 1991). Young people, who do not feel that education would help them to achieve a good life often turn their interest away from school. This is shown both in the adoption of health-compromising behaviours and in the amount of time spent on leisure, peer groups or work (Willis, 1977; Nutbeam et al., 1989;Mehan, 1992; Persaud and Madak, 1992; Argyle, 1994). Since educational track and school achievement strongly predict an individual's social position in adulthood (Halsey et al., 1980; Timmons, 1988), alienation from school leads to many kinds of difficulties in future life (Education and Research, 1992:1, Persaud and Madak, 1992). Low social class further diminishes a person's coping capabilities and abilities to adopt a healthy way of life (Macintyre, 1986;Jacobsen and Thelle, 1988; Winkleby et al., 1992; Argyle, 1994; Elo and Preston, 1996).
Smoking has a central role in distinguishing individuals who have chosen different educational tracks. Smoking is related to poor school attainment, disaffection with school and adoption of non-conventional values in society (Aarø et al., 1986; Glendinning et al., 1994, 1995). It can be thought that smoking is a strong indicator of a broader lifestyle, which gradually leads to a low level of education and health-damaging activities, with all their consequences (Nutbeam et al., 1989; West, 1991; Glendinning et al., 1992). Aarøet al. (Aarø et al., 1986) have defined lifestyle as `...relatively stable patterns of behaviours, habits, attitudes and values which are typical of the groups one belongs to, or the groups one wants to belong to'. Thus, in order to understand lifestyle, a large number of single, and possibly inter-related, behaviours need to be considered simultaneously. In addition, the role of reference groups is central. It is likely that the role of childhood social class as a reference group for lifestyle diminishes in adolescence when a person is in contact with other groups, e.g. in school and leisure-time. This will be reflected as the weak influence of the family's social class on the association between lifestyle and educational track.
The purpose of this study is to describe whether adolescents who have different health-related lifestyles have been selected into different educational tracks already at the age of 16. We want to identify which particular aspects of lifestyle are typical of adolescents who are at risk of ending up in low social positions or which are typical of those having the best chances of ending up in high positions. The conceptual model of the study is outlined in Figure 1. The associations of lifestyle with educational track at age 16 are assessed with adjustment to socioeconomic background. On the right are the supposed consequences of the process.
Previous SectionNext Section

Materials and methods

The study is a part of the Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey which is a national monitoring system of adolescent health and health behaviours. Data were collected by mailed questionnaires in 1987 from a national sample of 12-, 14-, 16- and 18-year-old Finns. The first inquiry was sent in February and was followed by two further inquiries to the non-respondents. In this paper, only the 16 year olds are considered, because by this age the division into those who continue and those who do not continue their studies has in most cases taken place. All those born between 14 and 31 July were included in the sample which was drawn from the Central Register of the Finnish Population. The total sample of 16 year olds comprised 2977 adolescents. The final number of respondents included in our analyses was 2467. The response rate was 83%, in boys 77% (N =1183) and in girls 89% (N = 1284). In terms of the geographical region of residence, the response rate was lowest (79%) in Central-West Finland and highest (88%) in North Finland. Self-administered 12-page questionnaires were sent to the sample members. Responding was voluntary and the purpose of the study was explained in a covering letter. The study protocol was accepted by the ethical committee of the Department of Public Health at the University of Helsinki.

Dependent variable

The dependent variable, educational track, is formed by classifying the respondents into five successive categories predicting their social position in adulthood. The first category consists of those who are presumed to have the poorest social prospects, i.e. the lowest probability of reaching a high social position in adulthood. The fifth category consists of those who are presumed to have the best social prospects, i.e. the highest probability of reaching a high social position in adulthood. The categories of educational track are formed according to the type of school the respondents are attending and their achievement.
In the Finnish educational system, after 9 years of compulsory schooling (basic education), a division is made, at the age of 16, into upper secondary schools and vocational or other schools (mostly vocationally or professionally oriented educational institutions) (Central Statistical Office of Finland, 1995). At the time of inquiry, the channel to university degrees and thus supposedly to higher social positions was through upper secondary schools. Achievement is measured by the pupil's own assessment of his or her position in the class, according to the average school marks in the preceding end-of-term school report. Consequently, the first of the successive categories, i.e. those with the poorest social prospects, consists of those who are not attending school at the time of inquiry (8%; N = 2377). The second category consists of those in vocational or other schools who have, at most, average school achievement (28%). The third category consists of respondents in vocational or other schools with above average school achievement (12%). The fourth category consists of those in upper secondary schools who have, at most, average school achievement (25%). The fifth category, i.e. those with the best social prospects, consists of respondents in upper secondary schools with above average school achievement (27%).
Most of the respondents were continuing their education after the compulsory level of schooling. Attending upper secondary schools and doing well in these schools is more typical for girls, while boys more often go to vocational or other schools and get average or below average level reports. Of all respondents, 3.6% are excluded from the classification because information about their school achievement is missing (1.4% in upper secondary schools and 7.0% in vocational schools).
The proportion of respondents attending formal education in this study is similar to the respective proportion in official Finnish statistics for the mid and late 1980s. Also the proportions of those attending upper secondary schools and vocational or other schools are comparable for this age group (Education and Research, 1992:3, 1987:5).

Independent variables

The independent variables are divided into two main groups as follows: sociodemographic background variables and lifestyle variables.

Sociodemographic background

  • Father's or other guardian's education: high (12 years or more), middle (from 8 to 11 years), low (at most 8 years).
  • Father's or other guardian's occupation is classified by the status classification of the Central Statistical Office of Finland in 1987 (Central Statistical Office of Finland, 1987): upper white-collar workers, lower white-collar workers, farmers, blue-collar workers.
  • The urbanization level of the place of residence is defined by the population density: capital area (Helsinki and the adjoining towns), large towns (population over 100 000), small towns, villages (densely populated areas in rural municipalities), sparsely populated rural municipalities (isolated homesteads in rural municipalities).
  • The five geographical regions of residence describe the South–North dimension, the most industrialized areas being South and South-West: South (provinces of Uusimaa and Kymi), South-West (provinces of Turku and Pori, Häme), Central-West (provinces of Keski-Suomi, Vaasa), East (provinces of Kuopio, Pohjois-Karjala, Mikkeli), North (provinces of Oulu, Lappi).
  • Family type: nuclear family (living with both parents), non-nuclear family (parents not living together, father, mother or both dead, or not living with parents).
  • Gender: male, female.

Lifestyle

(1) Health behaviours
  • Physical exercise. Organized physical exercise is obtained by summarizing, for each respondent, the total frequencies of participating in exercise organized by (a) schools or workplaces (physical training lessons were excluded), (b) sports clubs and (c) other associations or clubs. Classification is: daily, weekly (at least twice a week, but less frequently than daily), monthly (at least once a month, but not more often than once a week), rarely (less frequently than once a month or no exercise at all). Unorganized physical exercise is a measurement of exercise done alone or with friends or members of the family: classification as above.
  • Alcohol use: none (do not drink alcohol or drink at most once a year, but never get drunk), controlled drinking (drink but never get drunk), less-controlled drinking (drink at most twice a month and get drunk at most once a month/drink at least once a week, but get drunk less often than once a month), uncontrolled drinking (drink at least once a week and get drunk at least once a month).
  • Smoking: never tried, experimental or occasional (have smoked at most 50 times, but do not smoke daily), 1–9 cigarettes a day, 10+ cigarettes a day.
  • Dental hygiene is measured on the basis of the frequency of brushing teeth: several times a day, once a day, 2–5 times a week, at most once a week (or never).
  • Drinking coffee: not daily, 1–3 cups a day, 4 cups or more a day.
  • Consumption of sugar. Number of sugar lumps used in a cup of coffee is classified as: no sugar (including those who do not drink coffee daily), 1–2 lumps, 3 lumps or more. Consumption of sweets: at most once a week (or never), about 3–4 times a week, daily.
  • Consumption of milk fat combines the type of milk a person drinks and the type of fat he/she uses on bread. The three categories are: minor use (do not drink milk or drink skimmed milk and do not use fat on bread, or use margarine or comparable types of spread), medium use (do not suit either the first or the third category), heavy use of milk fat (use whole milk and mostly butter).
  • Use of seatbelts when travelling in the front-seat of a car: always, sometimes, never (includes those who do not drive in a car).
  • Bedtime: regular, irregular.

(2) Leisure-time activities
  • Hobbies. The frequencies of visiting discotheques or dancing places: never, occasionally (more seldom than weekly), at least weekly; sitting in bars or `hanging out' with friends: as above; attending church or other religious meetings: as above.
  • The number of hours spent daily on some activities: watching TV or videotapes: occasionally (less than 0.5 h), 0.5–2 h, at least 2 h; reading magazines, newspapers or comic books: as above; listening to music: as above.

(3) Social relations
  • The number of close relationships is formed as a combination of three types of social relations, the easiness of talking to mother/father/friends about things that really bother. These are dichotomies with categories easy and difficult (including the ones lacking mother/father/friends, 1.2/7.0/0.1% of the respondents, respectively). The categories of the combinatory variable are: three, two, one, none.
  • The starting age of the first time of going steady with someone: not yet, at the age of 15–16, before age 15.

Statistical procedures

The associations between educational track and the independent variables are analysed using polychotomous logistic regression models (Hosmer and Lemeshow, 1986; Agresti, 1990). Because of the ordinal nature of the dependent variable, cumulative logistic models are used. The ordinal dependent variable ytakes values 1, 2,..., J according to the category of the response. The model is formulated as (follows):j = 1, 2,..., (J – 1) and P[y > J] = 0. uj is a linear function of the categorical independent variables. This model can be used to calculate the probabilities in each category of y (Dixon, 1992).
Two stepwise procedures were carried out. First, of the sociodemographic background variables, those showing independent associations with educational track in univariate analysis (Pearson's χ2-test) are selected into the model. Second, to get the final multivariate model of lifestyle variables which are independently associated with educational track, another stepwise procedure is used. This is done after adjusting for the sociodemographic background variables selected above. The cumulative odds ratios (COR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) are calculated for the variables showing significant explanatory power in the final model. The groups giving approximately the same COR are combined. As cumulative models examine the relations between the categories of an ordinal type dependent variable, COR thus expresses the incidence of upper categories of the dependent variable as compared to the lower categories on various values of the independent variables.
All the decisions regarding statistical significance are made at the 5% risk level. The analyses are carried out using the PR program in the statistical software BMDP (Dixon, 1992).
Once the final model is found, its parameter values are used to calculate model-based predicted probabilities (see the formula above) of belonging to categories of educational track for persons with different combinations of characteristics. These probabilities are illustrated in Figures 2 and 3 for some combinations.
The logistic regression functions are computed using only the cases which have values for every variable. For this reason, there is a need to retain in the analyses as many observations for each variable as possible. Thus, for the variable, father's education, missing values (5.2%) are replaced by the most probable value according to father's occupation. For the variable, educational track, the missing values (3.6%), due to a lack of knowledge about the report level, are replaced by using the most probable value of the school report on the basis of school attendance and school type. The distributions of the variables are similar before and after the replacement of missing values, and in the final stepwise procedure there are only slight differences in the decimal parts of the significances and CORs. The proportion of missing values in the final model is 8.2% (16.9% before replacement).
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Results

All the socioeconomic background variables and all the lifestyle variables, except the number of close relations, are significantly associated with educational track in univariate analysis (Table I). For all the variables, except for urbanization level, geographical region of residence, visiting discotheques or dancing places and hours spent daily on reading magazines or comic books, the associations are significant at the risk level of 0.01%. Thus, it is unlikely that they are caused by the large sample size.
The final model is presented in Table II. In the first stepwise procedure of logistic regression analysis, four socioeconomic background variables have independent associations with educational track and are taken into the final model. Belonging to educational tracks with good social prospects is most typical of girls, of adolescents living with both parents and of adolescents whose fathers have a white collar occupation or a high level of education.
In the second stepwise procedure, after adjusting for the sociodemographic variables above, smoking is the lifestyle variable which is most closely associated with educational track. The probability of belonging to educational tracks with good social prospects is high among adolescents who do not smoke daily. Those who brush their teeth regularly, do not drink much coffee, participate in unorganized physical exercise, always use seatbelts, and use moderately or little milk fat and sugar in coffee also have a high probability of belonging to educational tracks with good social prospects.
Of leisure-time activities, the probability of belonging to educational tracks with good social prospects is associated with spending less hours daily watching TV or videotapes and listening to music, and attending church or other religious meetings often.
No variable describing social relations is significant in the final model.
Figure 2 shows model-based predicted probabilities of belonging to each of the five categories of educational track for people representing two different sets of characteristics, i.e. profiles. The profiles are combinations of sociodemographic and lifestyle variable categories. The predicted probabilities are based on cumulative odds ratios of the final model in Table II. A detailed description of the risk profiles in Figure 2 is shown in the Appendix. Figure 2 compares a person with an overall low chance of good social prospects (profile 1) with a person with an overall high chance of good social prospects (profile 2). The difference between profiles 1 and 2 is extreme. The predicted probability of belonging to the educational track with the best social prospects is 0.845 on profile 2 and 0.005 on profile 1. The predicted probabilities of belonging to the educational track with the poorest social prospects is 0.003 on profile 2 and 0.731 on profile 1. The profiles meet each other at the middle point of the distribution of educational track.
Figure 3 shows the effect of sociodemographic background on the association between lifestyle and educational track. Above, the difference between two individuals who both lead a hazardous lifestyle, but who differ according to sociodemographic background, can be seen. The profiles are quite similar, but a favourable background (profile 3) lowers the probability of belonging to the educational track with the poorest social prospects [i.e. of being in the category of not attending school (Table I)]. Otherwise, there is a slight difference in that a favourable background tends to increase the probability of belonging to educational tracks with better social prospects.
Below, there is a comparison between two individuals who both have a high chance of good social prospects according to lifestyle, but of whom one (profile 4) has an unfavourable sociodemographic background. Also here, the difference is most obvious at the extreme of the profile, in that an unfavourable background lowers the probability of belonging to the educational track with the best social prospects. Otherwise, an unfavourable background only slightly increases the probability of belonging to educational tracks with poorer social prospects.
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Discussion

The respondents represent well the entire Finnish population of 16 year olds. Since the proportions of 16 year olds in our study attending upper secondary schools and those attending vocational or other schools are similar to the respective proportions in official Finnish statistics (Education and Research, 1992:3, 1987:5), the fact that boys were less active than girls in returning the questionnaire has not caused distortion. However, there are no means to assess representativeness according to school performance. It has been found that in health-related surveys the response rate is lower in young men than in young women, and that reluctance to respond is associated with negative health behaviour and poor school performance (Pietilä et al., 1995). If active responding were selective in that direction also here, the associations found would be weak as compared to the situation where everyone would have responded.
Almost every subject could be classified according to educational track and thus the number of missing cases remained small. In forming this variable, it is assumed that its categories reflect people's positions on an ordinal scale. The ordering is based on the knowledge that the selected educational track and school achievement predict an individual's social position in adulthood (Halseyet al., 1980; Timmons, 1988). In the Finnish context, the division into two main levels of education is important, because the channel to university studies at the time of the study was through upper secondary schools.
The selected educational track does not straightforwardly predict the educational level to be attained in adult age. Changes from one track to another and dropping out may occur. In Finland, in 1987, 6% of the students in daytime full-time upper secondary schools dropped out of school, although they could later apply for vocational education. In vocational schools, the drop-out rate was 8% (Education and Research, 1992:14, 1992:16). However, despite these drop-out rates, the overall predictability of adult social position is supposed to be strong (see also Koivusilta et al., 1996).
Among the socioeconomic variables, gender was most closely associated with educational track. Girls were more often on the tracks with good social prospects than boys. It has been observed that nowadays girls achieve better in schools than boys (Cobalti, 1990; Rimpelä et al., 1990; Undheim and Nordvik, 1992). One explanation given for this phenomenon is that girls are often more disciplined and hardworking than boys (Svensson, 1971). Moreover, they are more concerned with the status, rather than the economic value, of education than boys (Shavit and Blossfeld, 1996).
Family type was, in our study, the second most significant background variable. Many other studies have also shown that not living with both biological parents increases the risk of problems in school (Keith and Finlay, 1988; Dawson, 1991;Macintyre, 1992; Mulkey et al., 1992; Persaud and Madak, 1992). In one-parent families, there seems to be more clustering of health-damaging behaviours than in other families (Isohanni et al., 1993). It is probable that in one-parent families guardians do not have much time to spend on furthering the educational success of their children. Also the scarcity of economic resources may decrease the amount of educational material at home (Erikson and Jonsson, 1996).
In this study, too, the importance of social class background on educational track is seen (Bourdieu and Passeron, 1977; Cobalti, 1990; Blackburn and Marsh, 1991; Mehan, 1992; Roberts and Parsell, 1992; Mauger, 1993; Erikson and Jonsson, 1996). Both measures of social class have an independent association with educational track, but the association of father's or other guardian's occupation is stronger than that of his education. On the whole, working-class parents may be content if their son or daughter gets a vocational education, while middle-class parents often want their children to prepare for university studies (Argyle, 1994; Erikson and Jonsson, 1996). Furthermore, the parent's success in life is an encouraging model for a young person, and the lifestyle and values of the upper classes provide the cultural capital needed for success in school (Bourdieu and Passeron, 1977).
Several aspects of lifestyle appear in this study to be more strongly associated with educational track than is sociodemographic background. It is possible that some behaviours better catch the attitudes of young people than the standard measures of background. It is also possible that some adolescents are not able to classify their parents according to occupational class or education. Among behaviours, the central role of smoking is repeated also in many other studies. It is possible that smoking illustrates a broader lifestyle where education is not valued and interest is directed towards other spheres of life (Willis, 1977; Aarø et al., 1986; Persaud and Madak, 1992; Glendinning et al., 1995). This kind of process of withdrawal from school may include other health-damaging habits, low self-esteem and a sense of lack of control over one's own life, with all these features reinforcing each other (Hammarström et al., 1988; Nutbeam et al., 1989; Persaud and Madak, 1992; Nurmi, 1993).
Smoking may be a sign of stress caused by an overload of personal and social development tasks or failure to meet social role expectations (Jarvis, 1994;Hurrelmann and Maggs, 1995). Pressure to succeed academically has been identified as an important source of stress for adolescents (Hurrelmann, 1990). Smoking is associated with many kinds of mental health problems, such as depression (Anda et al., 1990; Covey and Tam, 1990). All this may mean that health-damaging behaviours, health problems and a lack of resources for educational achievement may be closely intertwined already at an early stage of life.
It is also possible that people adopt behaviours for their own purely psychological reasons, like curiosity, the desire to experiment or the images given to various behaviours, e.g. in films and advertisements. Later, people with the same kinds of behaviours join together and then the implication of these behaviours may be further strengthened. Sharing a common habit, like smoking, may add to a sense of togetherness and signify making a distinction from other groups (Bourdieu, 1984). Thus, a habit becomes a source of self-esteem and self-image (Argyle, 1994). The adoption of certain behaviours, especially beginning to smoke, may also be regarded as a rite of transition, a sign of adulthood.
In this study, alcohol use is quite significantly associated with educational track in univariate analysis, but is not selected into the model. This is explained by the way in which the stepwise method at every step selects the most significant predictor from the set of many important, and supposedly correlating, variables (Dixon, 1992). Thus, the inclusion of smoking into the model renders the alcohol variable insignificant. Although these two behaviours are closely associated with each other (Aarø et al., 1995; Pohjanpää et al., 1996), it is also possible that they have different bases in adolescence. Smoking may be more a matter of rebellion and of peer solidarity, while drinking is confined to recreational contexts. Each behaviour also has differing potentials for generating addiction (Biddle et al., 1985). Nowadays, there appear to be two different dimensions in addictive behaviour among Finnish youth. On the traditional dimension, smoking and drinking go together. On the modern, and systematically increasing, dimension, the use of alcohol is involved while smoking is not (Pohjanpää et al., 1996). The association between social group and alcohol use is not as straightforward as that between social group and smoking (Mackenbach, 1992). In Finland, smoking is much more strongly associated with years of education than any indicator of alcohol use (Helakorpiet al., 1995). It seems that smoking in adolescence is a stronger indicator of a lifestyle where education is not highly valued than alcohol.
The major part of other lifestyle variables which are independently associated with educational track are health behaviours, such as putting effort into dental hygiene, eating habits, physical exercise or safety in traffic. The total amount of exercise and participation in most kinds of sports seems to be greatest in the middle classes. This may reflect the activity and motivation to work hard to attain goals. These traits are also behind educational success. Engaging in exercise may also be a sign that a person possesses much energy (Argyle, 1994). On the whole, all the behaviours mentioned above involve a feeling that life is under control to the extent that it is worth while taking care of one's health and abstaining from dangerous situations, and that discipline and self-control lead to rewards in the future. This is a part of middle-class culture that values ambition, individual responsibility, cultivation of skills, postponing immediate satisfaction and planning for the future. (Argyle, 1994). We conclude that, regardless of the original factors behind these behaviours, young people who, at the age of 16, share the same health-related lifestyle, also share some common attitudes towards education.
Of leisure-time activities, the amount of time spent listening to music and watching TV or videotapes divides the respondents. These are relaxation-oriented and passive ways to pass the time, and thus spending much time on these activities may be a sign of a low value given to studying and striving for achievements (Persaud and Madak, 1992; Argyle, 1994). Although these activities are to some extent typical features of the common youth culture, they may here be regarded as indicators of different lifestyles. Attending religious meetings as a leisure-time activity seems to indicate an opposite view of the importance of studying and suggest the adoption of a middle-class lifestyle. The middle classes have been found to be more active in public religious behaviour, like church attendance (Argyle, 1994). Thus, these leisure-time activities, together with the health-related behaviours, sharpen the picture of differing adolescent lifestyles.
The finding that the number of close social relations is not associated with educational track is difficult to interpret. There are many studies showing the importance of relations with parents and friends in educational attainment. Friends mediate parts of the effect of social origin on attainment. (Hauser et al., 1983; Jencks et al., 1983). Also, clear differences have been found in educational attainment and involvement in further education, between youth groups with different types of integration into family, school and peers, regardless of social background (Glendinning et al., 1995).
The final model was used to predict probabilities of belonging to categories of educational track for people with different sets of characteristics. By changing the values of item variables, it is possible to describe and compare various combinations of individual characteristics. The figures show that the entity, which is formed by health-related lifestyle and sociodemographic background together, is a powerful indicator of an individual's career chances. An adolescent with the most favourable characteristics clearly stands out through having a probability of 0.845 of belonging to those who will get the strongest educational basis for reaching a good social status. An unfavourable socioeconomic background would weaken this probability. Likewise, a good home background somewhat improves the chances of adolescents who have the poorest profile of behaviours. The future prospects are gloomiest for the slightly less than one-tenth of the cohort who will remain without further education. They are likely to remain outside the labour market and must rely on social security for their living. These people, who have unhealthy behaviours and who do not have their paths smoothed by their families, are in danger of becoming marginalized from the society in many ways which will influence also their health as adults.
The figures show that, at the age of 16, the influence of home background on the association between lifestyle and educational track is greatest at the extremes of the track variable. Background may have been the original generator of an individual's lifestyle and educational decisions but, in adolescence, the pattern of behaviours closely resembles the lifestyle of the individual's future social group. Thus, it seems that people, already at early stages of their lives, begin to follow behavioural and educational tracks leading to different positions in relation to health and social class in adulthood (Illsley, 1955; Kuh and Cooper, 1992; Argyle, 1994; Glendinning et al., 1994; Helakorpi et al., 1995).
By and large, the study gives evidence of a strong association between health-related lifestyle and educational track in adolescence. However, the stability of these findings from adolescence to adult life needs to be tested by longitudinal study designs.
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Appendix: The detailed description of the profiles in Figures 2 and 3

Profile 1: The lowest overall chance of good social prospects

Sociodemographic background variables
  • Gender: Male
  • Family type: Non-nuclear
  • Father's occupation: Blue collar worker or farmer
  • Father's education: Middle or low

Lifestyle variables
  • Smoking: Daily
  • Brushing teeth: At most 5 times a week
  • Drinking coffee: 4 cups or more a day
  • Hours spent daily on watching TV or videotapes: At least 2 h
  • Unorganized physical exercise: Rarely
  • Use of seatbelts: Sometimes or never
  • Use of milk fat: Heavy use
  • Hours spent daily on listening to music: At least 2 h
  • Attending church or other religious meetings: Occasionally or never
  • Use of sugar in coffee: 3 or more lumps

Profile 2: The highest overall chance of good social prospects

Sociodemographic background variables
  • Gender: Female
  • Family type: Nuclear
  • Father's occupation: Upper white collar worker
  • Father's education: High

Lifestyle variables
  • Smoking: Occasionally or never
  • Brushing teeth: Several times a day
  • Drinking coffee: Not daily or 1–3 cups a day
  • Hours spent daily on watching TV or videotapes: Less than 2 h
  • Unorganized physical exercise: Daily, weekly or monthly
  • Use of seatbelts: Always
  • Use of milk fat: Minor or medium use
  • Hours spent daily on listening to music: Less than 2 h
  • Attending church or other religious meetings: Weekly
  • Use of sugar in coffee: No sugar or 1–2 lumps

Profile 3: A high chance of good social prospects according to sociodemographic background, but a low chance according to lifestyle

Sociodemographic background variables
  • Gender: Female
  • Family type: Nuclear
  • Father's occupation: Upper white collar worker
  • Father's education: High

Lifestyle variables
  • Smoking: Daily
  • Brushing teeth: At most 5 times a week
  • Drinking coffee: 4 cups or more a day
  • Hours spent daily on watching TV or videotapes: At least 2 h
  • Unorganized physical exercise: Rarely
  • Use of seatbelts: Sometimes or never
  • Use of milk fat: Heavy use
  • Hours spent daily on listening to music: At least 2 h
  • Attending church or other religious meetings: Occasionally or never
  • Use of sugar in coffee: 3 or more lumps

Profile 4: A low chance of good social prospects according to sociodemographic background, but a high chance according to lifestyle

Sociodemographic background variables
  • Gender: Male
  • Family type: Non-nuclear
  • Father's occupation: Blue collar worker or farmer
  • Father's education: Middle or low

Lifestyle variables
  • Smoking: Occasionally or never
  • Brushing teeth: Several times a day
  • Drinking coffee: Not daily or 1–3 cups a day
  • Hours spent daily on watching TV or videotapes: Less than 2 h
  • Unorganized physical exercise: Daily, weekly or monthly
  • Use of seatbelts: Always
  • Use of milk fat: Minor or medium use
  • Hours spent daily on listening to music: Less than 2 h
  • Attending church or other religious meetings: Weekly
  • Use of sugar in coffee: No sugar or 1–2 lumps

View this table:
Table I.
The distribution (%) of educational track according to sociodemographic background and lifestyle variables [P values for the χ2-tests of independence in two-variable cross-tabulations (univariate analysis)]
View this table:
Table II.
Independent variables associated with educational track in the final model (Pvalues, the COR for belonging to educational tracks with good social prospects with their 95% CI)
View larger version:
Figure 1.
The conceptual model of the study.
View larger version:
Figure 2.
Model-based predicted probability of belonging to each of the five educational tracks according to the particular profiles [1 (——) versus 2 (– – –)] describing lifestyle and sociodemographic background. For detailed description, see Appendix.
View larger version:
Figure 3.
Model-based predicted probability of belonging to each of the five educational tracks according to the particular profiles [1 (——) versus 3 (˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙) and 2 (– – –) versus 4 (– - – - –)] describing lifestyle and sociodemographic background. For detailed description, see Appendix.
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Acknowledgments

This study was supported by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, Finland.
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Youngistan unplugged
Rajeev Mullick, Hindustan Times
Lucknow, January 05, 2012
The new age voters are fed up with old-style politics centred on narrow considerations of caste and community. They root for development, an issue that will determine how they vote. An interaction with engineering students of the RR Institute of Modern Technology, Lucknow, during HT
Campus Adda reflects this mood.
Iti Khare, a student, demands: "The political parties must promise steps to boost development. The new government should invest heavily in infrastructure in order to attract industry and create jobs."
They also animatedly discuss other topics, including corruption, division of the state and minimum academic qualifications for politicians, among others.
Most of them are confident the polling percentage will go up this time. "The youngsters of today are more aware than ever before. They value their vote. And as the elections are taking place in February (when the weather is pleasant), there is every reason to believe that there will be a good turnout," says Kushal Khatwani.
No reservation, please!
The young voters are against reservation. While they say the government may provide numerous facilities to the poor, only deserving candidates should get jobs. Neha Sharma, another student, says: "It hurts when an undeserving candidate gets a job. There should be no comprise on merit. Or else, development will take a backseat."
"Give jobs to the deserving ones. Why do we need to reserve seats for the weaker sections? The government should try providing the best facilities to them so that they can compete with the masses," suggests Lalita Sharma.
 
Netas must be well-informed
The students say minimum educational qualifications should be prescribed for the netas. "How can a Class 10-failed leader rule over us? This is not acceptable. It should be stopped," demands Saif Khan. He wants the parties to groom leaders before giving them tickets.
RTI, the right tool
The students also say the Right to Information (RTI) is one of the finest weapons to keep a tab on the functioning of ministers and officials. Sonal Srivastava asserts: "RTI has made a big difference. We can keep a tab on the senior officials in various departments."
Young leaders preferred
The students find it easier to relate to young leaders and feel the latter should get more tickets. Punnet Kumar Verma says, "the old leaders should take the back seat and let the youngsters come forward. The seniors may mentor young politicians and help them make the right decisions."
http://www.hindustantimes.com/India-news/Lucknow/Youngistan-unplugged/Article1-791493.aspx

Demographic's impact on marketing: Welcome to Youngistan

ET Bureau Dec 28, 2011, 12.11am IST
Tags:

Marketers swear by the mantra 'catch 'em young' and that's just what we did. The elusive youth demographic got a disproportionate amount of editorial attention. This extended to the youthful heroes of the ad and marketing industries as well. Many of the people profiled in the first edition of hot young creatives (July 2000) can perhaps no longer be called 'young' — but the remainder of that descriptor still applies.
2 October 1996
Rap To A Different Beat
There is no global youth. While some lifestyle props may be common, Asian/Indian Youth hold a bright outlook, as against the dark attitude of the West. MNC advertisers must keep this in mind
19 July 2000
Red Hot 'N' Smart - Young Creatives
1 October 2003
The Boy Brands
They're the movers, shakers and groovers of the marketing world. Brand Equity brings you Generation Next, the men and women following the footsteps of Vindi Banga, Muktesh Pant and Rajeev Bakshi
13 May 2009
The ScreenAgers
They live life in between screens - Mobiles, TVs, iPods, computers, or PSPs. To them multiscreening is the key to multi-tasking. Their spend power and brand consciousness makes them a marketer's dream. Their short attention span and loathing of ads makes them a nightmare. They are the ScreenAgers
11 November 2009
Indian Marketers League
They started off as foot soldiers in marketing or even as programmers and business analysts. Some 'escaped' the mandatory stint in sales. But for a cross section of senior marketers, former colleagues, ad men and media executives, they are sizzling hot. After weeks of telephone calls, emails checks and counter-checks, BE presents a carefully picked crop of the country's hottest young marketers
30 December 2009
Eighteen
They were born in 1991 when India opened up, both in mindset and moolah. As consumers they leave marketers befuddled and humbled. To wrap up 2009, BE invited ten 18-year-olds, two strategic planners, a creative head and a youth marketer in our mission to decode the children of liberalisation
31 March 2010
Up In The Air
BE's pick of Indian advertising's young guns
25 May 2011
Millennials
They love their privacy but they love to share their opinions more. They have their day jobs and they dream for bigger and better. Brand Loyalty from them comes at a price i.e. complete honesty. They look beyond roti, kapda and makaan. So you think you know the Millennials?
17 August & 24 August 2011
Hot Young Creatives

http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2011-12-28/news/30565283_1_hot-young-creatives-marketing-indian-youth
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